1. Abstract 3
2. Introduction 3
3. Hyperloop – The cost efficiency problem 4
4. It is not widely accessible 5
5. Safety issues 5
6. Hyperloop – The fifth mode of transportation 6
7. Faster, cheaper, cleaner 7
8. Safety measures to be taken 8
9. Conclusion 9
10. References and citations 10
This white paper revolves around the topic: Hyperloop (The train of the future), its functioning, the several companies working on this project and the various problems the managers and the employees of these companies are facing in different geographical locations. The main focus is on the measures that can be taken to minimize the cost so that this technology can be accessed by all sections of the society. The main problems faced by the managers’ are – High acquisition costs, complexity of infrastructure and high labour costs. 
The second part of the white paper discusses the impact of hyperloop on the revenues of other modes of transportation and the various implications that hyperloop will have on the supply chain. And the last part of the white paper enlightens the safety measures to be taken as travelling at such a high speed means that any fault in the system means that there are chances of deadly collisions. 
KEY WORDS – Acquisition costs – Complexity of infrastructure – Implications – Supply chain – Safety Measures. 
Hyperloop is a pod that is currently in development by several companies, it commutes the passengers from one place to another at a speed of 700 miles an hour in the floating pods with low pressure pods
The hyperloop is nothing but a Maglev train enclosed in a tube in which there is very little air pressure and hence almost no air resistance. The working principle is same as that of a maglev train i.e. the train is levitated and propelled forward using powerful electromagnets.

The joint team which released the design of the vac-train is Tesla and SpaceX.

The Hyperloop companies are:
The Boring Company
Virgin Hyperloop One
Hyperloop Transportation Technologies
Hardt Global Mobility
Hyper Chariot
It is learned lately that hyperloop is going to cost far more than what Elon musk had anticipated and hence hyperloop will not benefit everyone. For instance, Elon Musk had estimated that a route from Los Angeles to Las Vegas would cost around $6 billion. But some leaked information from the other sources states that the actual cost of building is between $9 billion – $12 billion, which is actually way too more than what Elon Musk had anticipated.
Since the cost of innovating and building is so huge, it has been a hard time for the managers and employees of the company. They are struggling to make this technology available to all sections of the society. Their aim such that the fares should be so cheap that the workers should also be able to buy a ticket and get benefit from the technology. It is true that the hyperloop ensures to provide broader fare problems. But in reality, they would only name and address the transportation concerns of upper class people. Even if the hyperloop is serving between the major American cities, it would service only relatively inconsistent white-collar businessman and leisure travellers. It is not economically feasible for daily wage employers to avail such a costly mode of transportation on an every day basis.

The managers and employees are finding solutions to this problem of cost efficiency and have found out that there are various variables from location to location which are affecting the cost of building. Some of them are-
Acquisition and maintenance Costs – Includes the all-in cost to purchase an asset. These costs include shipping, sales taxes, customs fees, and cost of site preparation, installation and testing. It also includes surveying and paying of liens. The hurdles in acquisition costs can be overcame if the employees are divided into departments according to their expertise. For eg: – their can be a surveyance team formed, similarly a tax manager can be appointed who would handle all taxes and custom fees. It also has a high maintenance cost in case of damage than all other alternatives, it is also risky to maintain it at very high maintenance and repair cost.

Need for tunnel (In Dubai they are planning to have a tube under water) – The need for tunnels may vary from place to place. For instance, in a place with lots of open space, tunnels are not required as tubes can be made above the ground on bridges. On the other hand, in crowded areas, tunnels can be made to pass the tube under the ground. Building tunnels underground or under the water may require high level of infrastructure and hence high level of costs as well. Expert architects and engineers are appointed by the company to study and design the pods that will run underground. The height of the bridges above the ground is also to be determined. 
Cost of labour – Labours are equally important as the employees and the managers because they are the ones who are actually working on the installation and building of the hyperloop. Hence there is no prerequisite for human labour. The cost of labour plays an important role in the overall budget of the company as they have to be paid for their daily work. The cost of labour may differ from country to country for eg- In a country like India the labour is uneducated and abundant, hence the cost is cheap. On the other hand in a developed country like America where the labour is educated, the labour is costly. Hence this cost also needs to be managed in different countries.

The sole purpose of advanced transportation broad problems is being targeted but transportation of wealthy people is focused communities. It would not be feasible for construction employee to commute on a daily basis from one city to another.
Even if Musk’s plan of this futuristic transportation is executed successfully, it will not be feasible for the average waged and the country side community. Even though hyperloop ensures easy and fast underground transportation, it will barely help with situations which a commuter will have to face after the facilities. It makes no difference in the congested road situations as one has to use these roadways.

Travelling by the hyperloop can be a highly uncomfortable and uneasy experience. It can leave people highly lightheaded and nauseatic due to the claustrophobic space inside the hyperloop. This shortage of space can also lead to various safety issues for passengers who are sensitive travellers and highly prone to motion sickness.
These disputes of high maintenance and claustrophobic space alongside high prices can lead to a less number of people opting for the hyperloop over the local trains for transportation. This scarcity of passengers could lead to a generation of less income for the company. This would further lead to an increase in price which would only decline the situation for hyperloop as their prices were already quite high.

Musk’s Hyperloop task “It can be described as travelling at the speed of sound and can be compared with travelling in space”, Dr. Phil A. E. W. Alfred Edward Woodley James Neville Mason states that “Any failure whatsoever will rip though that 2 centimeter outer underground like candy. Now sure, anybody in the ejection seat would die pretty much instantly in the result of a crash, but a single rift in the Hyperloop would probably putting to death everybody else in the Hyperloop because air would spate into the electron pipe at about the speed of sound.”
Even the crash of a small part of the hyperloop can cause a tumbling failure which will create a wave to bring down the entire setup at the speed of sound. It will have severe effect, much worse than the one caused by a nuclear weapon. The experience for the traveller will be a catastrophic one; similar to if he would have been exposed in space to die.

Hyperloop is planned to be developed in the Californian heat, where it is highly possible that it would considerably expand, Dr. Mason calculated that, “between the coldest and hottest days in that location, the Hyperloop would expand by about the length of three football fields, which would utterly wreck the tube”. Usually advanced expansion joints are used to resolve such issues of expansion but it is not possible in case of vacuum tubes. It is calculated that roughly 6000 joints to help maintain the vacuum of the tube. If one of those several joints has a defect associated with it the entire system along with its passengers will be at high risk.

Hyperloop could have a huge impact on the revenues of the other modes of transportation, given that it results to be cheaper as claimed. It could have a tremendous impact mainly on the airline industry. Modes of transport covering short distances will be the least affected. “Take the San Francisco International Airport to Los Angeles International Airport route as an example, which caters to more than 2.2 million annual passengers paying an average base fare of about $112 each, according to International Airport Review. A Hyperloop between the two cities would pose a potential yearly loss of nearly $250 million to the industry in airfares alone, without taking into account the possibility of substantial losses in ancillary revenue. If a long distance Hyperloop between New York’s John. F. Kennedy Airport and Los Angeles International Airport was unveiled before affordable supersonic airborne alternatives were rolled out, the potential loss of more than 2.87 million passengers paying an average of about $338 per person annually would bring the yearly loss to just short of $1 billion.”
This particular mode of transportation will make connectivity so easy that people can settle in their favorite place and still be miles apart from their workplace, every day.

Hyperloop will have some implications on the supply chain, some of which are mentioned below:
Supply Chain Flexibility: Due to high speed of Hyperloop technology, it is easier for supply chain to respond to any demand very quickly.

Supply Chain Resiliency: Hyperloop is considered to be an enclosed system therefore it will resistant to the weather changes, unlike the other modes of transportation whose functionality is disturbed due to such unavoidable circumstances.

Supply Chain Sustainability: Hyperloop is going to be a solar-based technology which conveys a lot in terms of pollution and conservation of fuel. It also helps save energy costs as there is very low friction.

“Call it pie in the sky, but these would be three significant improvements to some of the greatest challenges facing Supply Chain professionals today.”
Earlier this year, scientists at NASA’s Glenn Research Centre in Ohio examined the Hyperloop concept from a technical and cost perspective. They concluded that “estimates of energy consumption, passenger throughput, and mission analyses all support Hyperloop as a faster and cheaper alternative to short-haul flights of 250 to 500 miles.”
Hyperloop’s benefits really kick in, though, when you consider its environmental benefits. A feasibility analysis by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) estimates that Hyperloop routes could be up to six times more energy efficient than air travel on short routes, and over three times faster than the world’s fastest high-speed rail system.

The high-pods would also be more eco-friendly than road vehicles, according to researchers at the Helmut Schmidt University in Hamburg. Last year, they calculated the effects on road traffic of building a 300km Hyperloop in northern Germany dedicated to freight. They quantified the impact of removing thousands of trucks from the road, including reduced air and noise pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, congestion and road accidents.

Even though a Hyperloop in cloudy Germany could not run solely on solar power, it could still avoid emitting up to 140,000 tons of carbon dioxide each year, according to the study, as well as up to 0.2% of Germany’s entire production of air pollutants like methane, nitrous oxides and dust. Overall, the Hyperloop could produce up to €900m (£805m) of value in reduced pollution, accidents and congestion each year – equal to a third of its estimated €2.7bn initial investment.SAFETY MEASURES TO BE TAKEN

Hyperloop the subsonic train Tesla and SpaceX’s Elon Musk has been working from last 4 years now; it’s raising many questions that are the project technically safe for the passengers.
Travelling at such high speed means that any fault in the system would mean everyone on board would die.

We think hyperloop is one of the safest means of transportation in today’s world. It is safer than other means of transport like trains, automobiles or airplanes. One of the reason is that is does not have any effect of external adverse weather conditions or the traffic that we face in our day to day life. On the environmental basis it does not have any negative effect as there are neither greenhouse gases nor noise pollution.

The system devised by Tesla was successfully immune to ice, fog, wind and rain .The propulsion system is insertin into the tube and can only accelerate the capsule to the velocity that are feasible in each section. After removing the human control error and unpredictability of weather from the system very minute safety concerns remain. In most of the cases hyperloop is considerably safer than airplanes, trains or any other automobiles.

In the cases where the depressurization is significant oxygen masks would be deployed just like in airplanes. Once the capsule reaches the destination safely it will get removed from the service. Safety of the onboard air supply in hyperloop would be in accordance to aircraft and will have a potential considering the advantages Taken from decades of development in the similar systems.
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