Social work Child Abuse and Neglect Students Name Institutional Affiliation Social work Child Abuse and Neglect Child abuse and neglect has grown to become a serious challenge in the United States today

Social work Child Abuse and Neglect Students Name Institutional Affiliation Social work Child Abuse and Neglect Child abuse and neglect has grown to become a serious challenge in the United States today. Each day, a large number of children face the brunt of neglect and abuse which has a negative impact not just in the short term but also in the long-term. Research has shown that children who are abused at their early ages are more likely to abuse their own children (Milaniak Widom, 2015). There are several forms of negatively impacting the health and general well-being of a child. The abuse may be physical, emotional or sexual in nature and in most cases are perpetrated by the parents or care givers. The early years of childhood ideally offers a great challenge and promise to a child. Life experiences at this early stage of life shape the personalities and behaviors of children. It is important to note that children tend to grow optimally in an environment that is safe and a community that promotes ethical and moral nurturing (Maguire-Jack Showalter, 2016). Social workers are obligated to identify and report any suspicious case of child abuse to the authorities. In such cases the social worker is left to make a decision on their professional sense of duty in relation to their clients interests and their obligation within the larger society. Some of the social problems that a social worker will have to identify in dealing with this issue include Child Maltreatment In enriching environments, children are able to grow and develop, viewing their world as a safe place, a chance to explore and learn, where grown-ups are available to them, responsive and ready to address their issues. These positive early educational encounters animate a kids physical, scholarly, social, and enthusiastic advancement in this manner expanding chances for wellbeing, productivity, satisfaction, and imagination. However most youngsters are not able to attain this opportunities due to maltreatment Poverty the lack of basic needs and requirements can lead to physical, emotional and educational impact on the child. Physical abuse may be viewed from the perspective of inability to access healthcare in time, eviction from home, or refusal by a parent or care giver to let a runaway child return home. From the perspective of education, it refers to the promotion of chronic truancy, not enrolling and the inability of the parent or care giver to enroll the child once they have attained the mandatory school age. Emotional abuse This incorporates such actions as placing little attention or importance to a childs need for love, intentional rebuttal of or inability to give required emotional support and care, spousal abuse in the presence of the child and also the use of alcohol and other kinds of drugs (Widom, Czaja Dutton, 2014). The appraisal of child abuse and neglect needs the consideration of the accepted cultural standards and values care and additionally acknowledgment that the inability to give these important necessities of life might be closely related to poverty. Historical Emergence of Child Abuse and Neglect It can be deduced from the present federal definition of child abuse that this has been challenge that has been discussed and debated for a long time. For a considerable length of time, it was a common concept and understanding that children were the property of their parents, and as such, it was the parents decision to make on how fit to treat their own children (Davies Duckett, 2016). The first open case encompassing child neglect and abuse was presented in 1840 in the case of Johnson v. State. In the case a parent residing in Tennessee was put on trial for beating up his kid. In a lower court the defendant was convicted only for a higher court to rescind the decision arguing that it was ultimately the decision of the parent to choose how to punish their children. The court went further and argued that parents should only be careful not inflict cruel forms of punishments. As industrial revolution gained traction, children were sent to work in factories with adults. Despite their young age they worked in similarly deplorable conditions as adult and since there were no rules that outlawed or illegalized this occurrence most factories and individuals exploited these young children openly. In 1874, the first case of child abuse became public when a social worker, Etta Wheeler, working for a church found a 9 year old child beaten and malnourished. She then contacted the American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) and requested for their help in forming a child welfare organization that would advocate for the rights of children. This resulted in the formation of New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC) in the year 1875, which was a first of its kind in the world. With the recognition and awareness of the dire effects this issue had on the children and the society in general, the US government began being involved in finding a solution for this serious social issue. Subsequently, the first ever children bill of rights was developed during the first quarter in the 20th century. It was until 1935 that the federal government developed a framework that provided child welfare services formed under the Social Security Act and thus making the first major big breakthrough (Gelles, 2017). As the 20th century came to an end, there was an effort to form a more elaborate and concrete definition of child abuse as used in law, and as a result ostensible methods of reporting and investigating cases of abuse of children were made available. Later in 1983, the federal government selected the month of April as a nation abuse prevention month and later in 2003 the Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act (PROTECT) was brought before congress and passed as law (Gelles, 2017). This has strengthened the protection that children enjoy under the constitution across the United States. Institution in New York Dealing with Child Abuse and Neglect New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC) New York State Child Welfare Training Institute Office of Children and Family Services Council of Family and Child Caring Agencies (COFCCA) References Widom, C. S., Czaja, S., Dutton, M. A. (2014). Child abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration A prospective investigation. Child abuse neglect, 38(4), 650-663 Milaniak, I., Widom, C. S. (2015). Does child abuse and neglect increase risk for perpetration of violence inside and outside the home. Psychology of violence, 5(3), 246 Maguire-Jack, K., Showalter, K. (2016). The protective effect of neighborhood social cohesion in child abuse and neglect. Child abuse neglect, 52, 29-37 Davies, L., Duckett, N. (2016). Proactive child protection and social work. Learning Matters. Gelles, R. J. (2017). 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