Review of Related Literature
Tobacco is an agricultural crop, most commonly used to make cigarettes. It is grown all over the world and supports a billion-dollar industry. The psychoactive ingredient is nicotine, a stimulant, but more than 4,000 other chemicals (2,000 of which are known to be poisonous) are present in cigarettes. Tobacco is a nervous system stimulant that triggers complex biochemical and neurotransmitter disruptions. It elevates heart rate and blood pressure, constricts blood vessels, irritates lung tissue, and diminishes your ability to taste and smell. (Nancy Brown Ph. D., 2013)
According to Drug Fact, 2018 Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves, which are dried and fermented before being put in tobacco products. Tobacco contains nicotine, an ingredient that can lead to addiction, which is why so many people who use tobacco find it difficult to quit. There are also many other potentially harmful chemicals found in tobacco or created by burning it.
According to World Health Organization, Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Despite this, it is common throughout the world. A number of countries have legislation restricting tobacco advertising, and regulating who can buy and use tobacco products, and where people can smoke.
According to Virtual Medical Centre, Tobacco contains a chemical called nicotine that when ingested gives the consumer a “pleasurable rush” and as a consequence people from all over the world have been addicted to this plant for centuries. Nicotine stimulates the release of adrenaline in the brain and this is the rush or nicotine “hit” that people have been addicted to for centuries. Tobacco is most commonly ingested by inhaling the smoke from burning it. Tobacco is burnt using a cigarette, cigar or tobacco pipes. It can also be chewed in the form of chewing tobacco or snuffed.
Regular smokers believe that smoking tobacco helps them to relax, to handle stress and to feel less hungry. However, tobacco smoke (tar) contains over 4,000 chemicals and many have effects on various parts of the human body, including the brain, lungs, heart and mouth. Most of the cancers associated with smoking are due to the tar in the smoke. Smoking any drug gets it to the brain very quickly. When a tobacco smoker inhales it’s estimated that the nicotine in the tobacco smoke reaches the brain in around 8 seconds. This speed of action contributes to a user becoming hooked to the nicotine in tobacco. (Talk to Frank)
According to My Doctor, The effects of any drug (including tobacco) vary from person to person. How tobacco affects a person depends on many things including their size, weight and health, also whether the person is used to taking it. The effects of tobacco, as with any drug, also depend on the amount taken.
Tobacco use is one of the most important preventable causes of premature death in the world. More than 6 million people per year die from tobacco use across the globe. There is no question that limiting tobacco use is one of the most effective ways to save lives and improve overall well-being.
Cigarette smoking causes chronic diseases that appear at older ages, such as lung cancer, as well as adverse health effects that occur in the short run. The immediate and short-term adverse health effects of cigarette smoking are less likely to be directly fatal than the long-term health effects. Nevertheless, they are important public health indicators because they lead to suboptimal health status throughout the life course in smokers and because many of the short-term physiologic effects mechanistically contribute to the etiology of smoking-caused diseases that usually do not become clinically apparent until later adulthood.
According to NCBI, The short-term adverse health effects caused by cigarette smoking can be observed in smokers immediately or soon after they begin smoking. The health effects of cigarette smoking thus begin at or near the age of initiation of cigarette smoking, which is usually in adolescence. To highlight the immediacy of the adverse impact of smoking on health, this report uses a life-course perspective by considering health effects of smoking according to the various stages of life, which include childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood as well as middle and late adulthood, when most of the chronic disease burden imposed by smoking occurs. A particularly vulnerable time during the life course is pregnancy (for both mother and fetus) and the months following birth (for the infant); for this reason, this stage of life is considered separately. In this report, the term “immediate health effects” refers to effects that occur within days of cigarette smoking, while “long-term health effects” refers to the clinical morbidity and mortality that occur primarily in middle and late adulthood, and the term “intermediate health effects” is used to refer broadly to the health outcomes that occur between the immediate and long-term health effects.