Question #1 “What does Expansion Slot mean

Question #1
“What does Expansion Slot mean?
An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that is used to insert an expansion card (or circuit board), which provides additional features to a computer such as video, sound, advanced graphics, Ethernet or memory.
The expansion card has an edge connector that fits precisely into the expansion slot as well as a row of contacts that is designed to establish an electrical connection between the motherboard and the electronics on the card, which are mostly integrated circuits. Depending on the form factor of the case and motherboard, a computer system generally can have anywhere from one to seven expansion slots. With a backplane system, up to 19 expansion cards can be installed.

Expansion cards can provide various functions including:
• Sound
• Modems
• Network
• Interface adapters
• TV and radio tuning
• Video processing
• Host adapting such as redundant array of independent disks or small computer system interface
• Solid-state drive
• Power-on self-test
• Advanced multi rate codec
• Basic input/output system (BIOS)
• Expansion read-only memory (ROM)
• Security devices
• RAM memory
Older expansion cards also included memory expansion cards, clock/calendar cards, hard disk cards, compatibility cards for hardware mutation, and disk controller cards. The Altair 8800 was the first slot-type expansion card bus added to a microcomputer. It was developed in 1974-1975 by IBM Corp.
The expansion slot opening is generally located on the back of a PC and provides an electrical connection to the motherboard for an expansion card. Screws are then used to attach the card to the slot for added security.

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Question #2
Five names of intel processor?
1-Intel Celeron
2-Intel Pentium Pro
3-Intel Xeon
4-Pentium D/EE
5-Intel Pentium Dual-Core
Question #3
Five names of AMD processor?
1-Non-x86 architecture processors
2-.K8 core architecture
3-.K10 core architecture
4-.Bobcat core architecture (APU)
5-.Zen Core Architecture
Question #4
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)?

RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. To execute each instruction, if there is separate electronic circuitry in the control unit, which produces all the necessary signals, this approach of the design of the control section of the processor is called RISC design. It is also called hard-wired approach.

Examples of RISC processors:
• IBM RS6000, MC88100
• DEC’s Alpha 21064, 21164 and 21264 processors

Features of RISC Processors:
The standard features of RISC processors are listed below:
• RISC processors use a small and limited number of instructions.
• RISC machines mostly uses hardwired control unit.
• RISC processors consume less power and are having high performance.
• Each instruction is very simple and consistent.
• RISC processors use simple addressing modes.
• RISC instruction is of uniform fixed length.

Question #5
CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)?
CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. If the control unit contains a number of micro-electronic circuitry to generate a set of control signals and each micro-circuitry is activated by a micro-code, this design approach is called CISC design.
Examples of CISC processors are:

• Intel 386, 486, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III
• Motorola’s 68000, 68020, 68040, etc.

Features of CISC Processors:
The standard features of CISC processors are listed below:
• CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instructions.
• CISC machines generally make use of complex addressing modes.
• Different machine programs can be executed on CISC machine.
• CISC machines uses micro-program control unit.
• CISC processors are having limited number of registers.

Question #6
How does solid state drive store data?
Since then, hard drives have grown smaller, more capacious and, thankfully less expensive. For example, the Seagate Momentous laptop hard drive, with a form factor of just 2.5 inches (6.4 centimeters), offers 750 gigabytes of storage for less than $100. But even with advanced protection technologies, the Momentous drive, like all HDDs, can crash and burn, taking precious data with it. That’s because hard drives have mechanical parts that can fail. Drop a laptop, and the read-write heads can touch the spinning platters. This almost always results in severe data loss.
Luckily, a new kind of computer drive could make crashes as obsolete as your Apple. Known as a solid-state drive, or SSD, it uses semiconductor chips, not magnetic media, to store data. Your computer already comes with chips, of course. The motherboard contains some that house your device’s system memory, or RAM, which is where information is stored and processed when your computer is running. Computer types refer to such memory as volatile memory because it evaporates as soon as your machine loses power. The chips used in a solid-state drive deliver non-volatile memory, meaning the data stays put even without power. SSD chips aren’t located on the motherboard, either. They have their own home in another part of the computer. In fact, you could remove the hard drive of your laptop and replace it with a solid-state drive, without affecting any other essential components.
But why would you want to? And what exactly would the drive look like — a green, printed circuit board or a brushed-metal box resembling a traditional hard drive? We’ll answer those questions on the following pages, but before we give your machine a makeover, let’s review a few computer science basics.
ADVANTAGES OF SSD: SOLID-STATE DRIVE VS. HARD DISK DRIVE
1. Faster than hard disk drives: Because an SSD has no mechanical parts, it is considerably faster than an HDD. This is one of the advantages of a solid-state drive. Fragmentation of data in a solid-state drive is negligible unlike in a hard disk drive making it inherently faster. An SSD is 25 to 100 times faster than a typical HDD. This translates to faster boot times, quicker file transfers, and greater bandwidth for enterprise computing.
2. Low power consumption: An HDD consumes more power because it relies on the rotation of the magnet-coated metal platter for reading and writing data. An SSD has no moving parts and it does not require mechanical work to become operational. This low power consumption gives solid-state drives another advantage. This means that an SSD is suitable for energy efficient computers and consumer electronic devices. Furthermore, using a solid-state drive lessens that susceptibility of a computer or device to overheat.
3. Durable than hard disk drives: One major drawback of an HDD is the susceptibility to data loss and overall device breakdown due to drops and shudders. This drawback stems from the mechanical or movable parts inside a hard disk drive. Because an SSD has no moving or mechanical parts, it is more durable to drops and shudders thereby making it more resilient against data loss caused by physical or external trauma. This is another worthy advantage of a solid-state drive especially when taking into consideration mobile computing.
4. No noise while in operation: The absence of a rotating metal platter to store data and a moving read arm makes an SDD completely quiet while in operation. Zero noise is impossible in an HDD. The rotation of the metal platter and the back and forth movement of read arm create noise and even subtle vibrations.
5. Compact than hard disk drives: An SSD is considerably compact than HDD because of the absence of mechanical or movable parts. This also means that a solid-state drive is a more suitable or advantageous storage component for portable consumer electronic devices such as Ultrabook’s and tablets.

DISADVANTAGES OF SSD: SOLID-STATE DRIVE VS. HARD DISK DRIVE
1. More expensive than hard disk drives: An SSD is more expensive than an HDD in terms of dollar per GB. This is one of the primary disadvantages of a solid-state drive. Compared with a hard disk drive, a solid-state drive with a similar storage capacity can be twice as expensive. This translates to more expensive computers or other devices with solid-state drive systems than those that have hard drive systems.
2. Limited storage capacity: Current SSDs in the market have limited storage capacity. Computers or devices with an SSD storage system usually have a base storage capacity of 128GB. Higher storage capacity contributes to the overall price of a computer or device. Although there are solid-state drives with a capacity of 4TB, they are very rare and expensive.
3. Poor availability: Another disadvantage of a solid-state drive is availability. HDDs are more abundant in the market. From internal storage of computers or devices to external media storage, hard disk drives are easier to find and they are considerably cheaper than solid-state drives. But the consumer electronic market is now leaning toward more compact laptops and tablet computers. This means than SSDs are becoming also more available but not as abundant as HDDs.
4. Shorter lifespan than hard disk drives: An SSD has a limited write cycle. The flash memories of a solid-state drive can only be used for a finite number of writes. An SSD cannot write a single bit of information without first erasing and then rewriting very large blocks of data at one time. As each cell goes through this cycle, it becomes more useless. However, this decaying process does not affect the read capability of the entire SSD. In addition, because of technological advancements, the lifespan of an SSD lasts until the natural consumer-driven product lifecycle of a computer.

Question# 7
Magnetic Disk:
Magnetic disk is the most widely used storage medium. A magnetic disk is a thin, circular metal plate/platter coated with magnetic material. Information can be recorded on or read from the magnetic surface. A disk must be formatted before it can be used. The formatting process prepares the disk so that it can store data.
Formatting is a process that crates tracks and sectors on disk. Each track on a disk is divided into sectors. Each sector holds a specific number of characters. A sector is the smallest physical storage unit on a disk. Its size is normally 512 bytes. Two or more sectors combine to form a cluster. A cylinder consists of all tracks of the same number. Every cylinder contains the same number of sectors. For example, track 0 of side 1 and track 0 of side 2 is called cylinder 0.
The magnetic disk is the random access storage media. It means that any part of the disk is directly accessible. There are many types of magnetic disk some of them are given below;
• Hard Disk
• Floppy Disk
• Zip Disk”