PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY Intro to Research Project Presented to The Faculty of the Department of Global Leadership Indiana Tech In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Global Leadership Program By Shawndra Harmond- Young November 2018 1

PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY

Intro to Research Project
Presented to
The Faculty of the Department of Global Leadership
Indiana Tech

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Global Leadership Program
By
Shawndra Harmond- Young
November 2018

1) Research topic – THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL CLIMATE ON SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT.
Research question- CAN POSITIVE SCHOOL CLIMATE LEAD TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
The purpose is to promote discussion and bolster conversation and teamwork amidst campus leaders, students, and parents and neighborhood members placed in charge. School climate revision is an ongoing practice of learning and enhancement. So when calculating a school environment accurately, you can reveal to your campus community that their backgrounds and reality are essential to making the school a better place. The exact purpose or goal at the end of the program is to improve the perceptions of the staff and students in a positive way as it relates to the climate and culture of our campus, the benefits are for all involved. This is applied research because of the methodology used to solve a practical problem of our school. The study and action research is used to investigate a self-selected issue in the classroom to effect positive changes in teaching as it relates to students’ learning. Natural experiments are regularly used to study positions in which controlled experimentation is not conceivable, such as when an openness of interest cannot be practically or ethically assigned to research subjects. My inquiry requires inductive reasoning, having to gather evidence, seek patterns, and form a hypothesis or theory to explain observed information. Conclusions reached by the inductive method are not logical necessities; no amount of inductive evidence guarantees the conclusion.
2)
Perhaps research can be performed without theory and the conception of a provable claim. However, research must be performed in an orderly manner with the intent of being repeatable and testable by other researchers and in other locales and conditions. Method of the test, data collected, and other conceivable information must be recorded to facilitate repeatability and complete explanation. An academic study should be controlled by a theory so the research conclusions can be used to aid building thoughts on a given subject. It is difficult to determine if research is designed to test or describe a theory because the mastery of doing research functions largely of asking questions, and sometimes answering them. Learning how to repeatedly pose mini questions that represent special cases of the big questions you are hoping to solve. These are all questions that have to be resolved, and potential directions for the future are still open. What is and are for quality and how much or many for quantity. What would be important from my perspective is to be aware that the lived realities of people conducting arts-based research are more complex than the theories about it. To include these realities into the discourse on practice, it is necessary to open up the debates to a variety of different actors, practitioners as well as policy makers and theorists. a “theory” allows us to develop a hypothesis. Hypothesis is individual facts that would be true (or not) if the theory is correct.
Explaining theory as an idea justifying something, or a series of guiding principles proves difficult for most. Which is why examining theory allows the researcher to contribute evidence to back or contradict the theoretical recommendations tested. It also helps the researcher make sense of the findings in a way that will help us predict relationships and outcomes and to determine resources and services. Observation must be for or opposing some viewpoint if it is to be of any use to those who attempt to follow your thoughts. With contrasting understandings of what it means to do research, as well as different problems with relating their activities in the project to the theories I am not so sure I have a good understanding enough to formulate true opinions on any subject matter at this time. Something I noticed between both studies was the different methods used to conduct similar studies. In LEADERSHIP: DOES CULTURE MATTER? COMPARATIVE PRACTICES BETWEEN ARGENTINA AND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, I noticed the use of charts, quantitative in this case is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables. It was also interesting to discover the attitude of Argentinians vs. Americans, and the fact that this was inserted in the study brings me back to my original thought of inserting unnecessary information or your own opinions into research. In Understanding Responsible Leadership: Role Identity and Motivational Drivers, qualitative research is used to uncover trends in thought and opinions, and dive deeper into the problem of what makes a responsible leader, how did they come to be? Research for a beginner is too confusing, and it appears qualitative methods are not well suited for testing hypotheses. Something that helped me determined the studies boundaries was found in the abstract section. Ending thoughts are regarding abstracts a shortened version of a research and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper’s purpose. Study boundaries limited the study by incorporating all types of things, for the most part, outside the researcher’s control, like as time, funding, and access to populations of interest. In the study, The Case of Dame Anita Roddick, Founder of The Body Shop, I found a lot of assumption placed on people and relationships for instance the researcher incorporated a lot of information about the family and how they interacted with each other. This again leads me back to my original thoughts of if you become connected with your subjects your research could becomed compromised or skewed.
References
Altschull, C. (2003). A crisis of guidance: Argentina leadership icons and middle managers adaptive responses. Globe Research Proyect. Buenos Aires.
Bradshaw, C.P., Waasdorp, T. E., Debnam, K., ; Lindstrom Johnson, S. (2013). Measuring school climate in high schools: A focus on safety, engagement, and the environment. Manuscript submitted for publication, Journal of School Health.
Cornell, D., ; Gregory, A. (2008). Virginia High School Safety Study: Descriptive report of survey results from ninth grade students and teachers. Charlottesville: University of Virginia.
Solomon, R. C.: 1999, A Better Way to Think About Business: How Personal Integrity Leads to Corporate Success (Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford).