PENDAHULUAN Latar Belakang Reproduksi diperlukan untuk mempertahankan kelangsungan hidup suatu spesies

PENDAHULUAN
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Reproduksi diperlukan untuk mempertahankan kelangsungan hidup suatu spesies. Mekanisme reproduksi pada mamalia dipengaruhi secara utama oleh Gonadotropin Releasing Hormon (GnRH), Folikel Stimulating Hormon (FSH), Luteinizing Hormon (LH), Prolactin (PL), Estradiol (E2), dan Progresteron (PGS) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “SF871.C56.2007”, “ISBN” : “13: 978-0-8138-1554-1/2007”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Constantinescu”, “given” : “Heide Schatten and Gheorghe”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Heide”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1 – 365”, “publisher” : “Blackwell Publishing Ltd”, “publisher-place” : “Asia”, “title” : “Comperative Reproductive Biology.pdf”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d75f37db-3b67-46f8-9332-a4086a428ba2” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “1559-6109”, “PMID” : “19930821”, “abstract” : “The purpose of the present study was to describe the technique for and findings of ultrasonographic examination of the rat uterus for diagnosis of early and midterm pregnancy. The uterus of anesthetized Wistar rats was examined between days 9 and 16 post coitum by transabdominal real-time ultrasonography by using a 12-MHz linear transducer. Pulsed-waved color Doppler sonography was used to measure the embryonic heart rate. The embryonic vesicles were detected with 25% false-negative diagnosis on day 9, 8% on day 10, and 0% thereafter. By day 12, the embryos were detected with measurable crown-rump length and heart rate. Ultrasonographic evidence of pregnancy in the rat was present by day 9 post coitum. Diagnosis of pregnancy was confirmed by detection of the embryo heart beat by day 12. Embryo characteristics were ultrasonographically measurable between days 9 and 16.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ypsilantis”, “given” : “Petros”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Deftereos”, “given” : “Savvas”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Prassopoulos”, “given” : “Panagiotis”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Simopoulos”, “given” : “Constantinos”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “734-739”, “title” : “Ultrasonographic diagnosis of pregnancy in rats.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “48” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fd5b5899-a8bd-4c45-9a2f-933b91f1abf6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Constantinescu, 2007; Ypsilantis, Deftereos, Prassopoulos, & Simopoulos, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Constantinescu, 2007; “, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Constantinescu, 2007; Ypsilantis, Deftereos, Prassopoulos, & Simopoulos, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Constantinescu, 2007; Ypsilantis, Deftereos, Prassopoulos, & Simopoulos, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Constantinescu, 2007; ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394445-0.00007-2 u00b7”, “abstract” : “The laboratory mouse is an essential model for investigation of normal mammalian physiology, dysfunction, and disease. Under conditions of long photoperiod, mice breed continuously throughout the year. In unbred mice, the estrous cycle is a continuum of approximately 4 days in length, characterized by hormonal variation and consequent morphological and physiological changes to the reproductive tract. Four stages of varying duration are recognized. Proestrus is the period during which pre- and peri-ovulatory development take place in the ovary, with consequent synthesis and secretion of estrogens. Estrus, the brief interval during which the female accepts the male and during which ovulation occurs, follows. Next is metestrus, the early luteal phase, followed by diestrus, during which progesterone is the dominant hormonal influence. Two cell types, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and squamous epithelial cells, predominate in the exfoliative cytology of mouse vagina. Stages of the estrous cycle can be identified from the assemblage of these cells. In this chapter, the continuum of morphological changes in the reproductive tract and in vaginal cytology is documented to provide tools for reproductive management of a mouse colony.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Murph”, “given” : “Kalyne Bertolin and Bruce D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Researchgate”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Reproductive Tract Changes During The Mouse Estrous Cycle”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e0379524-1440-41c2-8470-6989619d5bd8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Murph, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “Murph and Bertolin, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Murph, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Murph, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Murph dan Bertolin, 2014). GnRH merupakan pengatur dari semua hormon yang bertanggung jawab terhadap sekresi hormon-hormon reproduksi, hormon ini akan merangsang FSH, sehingga ovarium membentuk folikel dan mengatur jalannya ovulasi. Disisi lain, LH juga dirangsang untuk mengaktifkan produksi progesteron dan estrogen, membentuk dan menjaga korpus luteum, dan menstabilkan jalannya ovulasi. Selanjutnya, kehadiran LH dan FSH akan merangsang produksi E2 pada sel granulosa untuk membantu pertumbuhan uterus, mendorong perkembangan folikel, dan mendorong pembentukan sel kelamin sekunder. LH juga merangsang produksi PGS di sel theca untuk menyiapkan uterus saat masa kehamilan. Hormon-hormon tersebut disekresikan selama masa estrus dengan jumlah bervariasi untuk masing-masing hormon ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781441949516”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gore”, “given” : “Andrea C”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “3”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gore”, “given” : “Andrea C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2002” }, “number-of-pages” : “1 – 337”, “publisher” : “Springer Science”, “publisher-place” : “New York”, “title” : “GnRH: THE MASTER MOLECULE OF REPRODUCTION”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a7dae340-76df-4f7c-8f6f-a2f7abb639e9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Gore, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gore, 2012). Meskipun demikian, keberadaan hormonal ini dapat mengalami perubahan seperti hipersekresi dan hiposekresi ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “978-979-044-085-2”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sherwood”, “given” : “Lauralee”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “6”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yesdelita”, “given” : “dr. Brahm U. Pendit and dr. Nella”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-999”, “publisher” : “Penerbit buku kedokteran EGC”, “title” : “Fisiologl Manusia: Dari sel ke sistem”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e715093e-dfac-46aa-bca4-bb52b9773c57” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sherwood, 2011)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Sherwood, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sherwood, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sherwood, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sherwood, 2011). Perubahan hormon-hormon tersebut dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor. Salah satunya adalah durasi cahaya (fotoperiodisme) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781441949516”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gore”, “given” : “Andrea C”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “3”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gore”, “given” : “Andrea C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2002” }, “number-of-pages” : “1 – 337”, “publisher” : “Springer Science”, “publisher-place” : “New York”, “title” : “GnRH: THE MASTER MOLECULE OF REPRODUCTION”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a7dae340-76df-4f7c-8f6f-a2f7abb639e9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Gore, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gore, 2012).
Durasi cahaya dapat memicu respon fisiologis pada hewan (fotoperiode) dan dapat mempengaruhi ritme sirkadian, regulasi tidur dan regulasi hormonal ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.jneumeth.2017.04.007”, “ISSN” : “01650270”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Peirson”, “given” : “Stuart N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brown”, “given” : “Laurence A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pothecary”, “given” : “Carina A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Benson”, “given” : “Lindsay A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fisk”, “given” : “Angus S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Neuroscience Methods”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Light and the laboratory mouse”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2e064c40-2f56-4ddd-a294-2b771ff52f53” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Peirson, Brown, Pothecary, Benson, & Fisk, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Peirson et al (2017))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Peirson, Brown, Pothecary, Benson, & Fisk, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Peirson, Brown, Pothecary, Benson, & Fisk, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Peirson et al., 2017). Pada fotoperiode yang normal (12 Terang : 12 Gelap) mengakibat terpengaruhnya Supra Chiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) di hipotalamus, sehingga hormon melatonin menjadi aktif ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1098/rspb.2010.0396”, “ISBN” : “1471-2954 (Electronic)\r0962-8452 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “0962-8452”, “PMID” : “20444712”, “abstract” : “The seasonal reproductive cycle of photoperiodic rodents is conceptualized as a series of discrete melatonin-dependent neuroendocrine transitions. Least understood is the springtime restoration of responsiveness to winter-like melatonin signals (breaking of refractoriness) that enables animals to once again respond appropriately to winter photoperiods the following year. This has been posited to require many weeks of long days based on studies employing static photoperiods instead of the annual pattern of continually changing photoperiods under which these mechanisms evolved. Maintaining Siberian hamsters under simulated natural photoperiods, we demonstrate that winter refractoriness is broken within six weeks after the spring equinox. We then test whether a history of natural photoperiod exposure can eliminate the requirement for long-day melatonin signalling. Hamsters pinealectomized at the spring equinox and challenged 10 weeks later with winter melatonin infusions exhibited gonadal regression, indicating that refractoriness was broken. A photostimulatory effect on body weight is first observed in the last four weeks of winter. Thus, the seasonal transition to the summer photosensitive phenotype is triggered prior to the equinox without exposure to long days and is thereafter melatonin-independent. Distinctions between photoperiodic and circannual seasonal organization erode with the incorporation in the laboratory of ecologically relevant day length conditions.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Butler”, “given” : “Matthew P”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Turner”, “given” : “Kevin W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Park”, “given” : “Jin Ho”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schoomer”, “given” : “Elanor E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zucker”, “given” : “Irving”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gorman”, “given” : “Michael R”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “2867-2874”, “title” : “Seasonal regulation of reproduction: altered role of melatonin under naturalistic conditions in hamsters.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “277” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=23f5bca2-1ab1-45dd-b17b-e09ec048401b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Butler et al., 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Navara and Nelson, 2007; Walton et al (2011))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Butler et al., 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Butler et al., 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Navara dan Nelson, 2007 dan Walton et al., 2011). Keberadaan melatonin ini akan mempengaruhi sekresi GnRH di hipotalamus yang selanjutnya akan mempengaruhi LH dan FSH yang berperan dalam mengontrol siklus reproduksi. (Gambar 1).
64770886460Gambar 1. Diagram Jalur Regulasi
00Gambar 1. Diagram Jalur Regulasi

Dalam kehidupan, kebutuhan akan cahaya merupakan salah satu kebutuhan vital. Akibatnya, banyak diproduksi cahaya artifisial seperti untuk penerang dirumah dan tempat-tempat umum, (ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/j.1600-079X.2007.00473.x”, “ISBN” : “07423098 (ISSN)”, “ISSN” : “07423098”, “PMID” : “17803517”, “abstract” : “Organisms must adapt to the temporal characteristics of their surroundings to successfully survive and reproduce. Variation in the daily light cycle, for example, acts through endocrine and neurobiological mechanisms to control several downstream physiological and behavioral processes. Interruptions in normal circadian light cycles and the resulting disruption of normal melatonin rhythms cause widespread disruptive effects involving multiple body systems, the results of which can have serious medical consequences for individuals, as well as large-scale ecological implications for populations. With the invention of electrical lights about a century ago, the temporal organization of the environment has been drastically altered for many species, including humans. In addition to the incidental exposure to light at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting in repeated and often long-term circadian disruption. The increasing prevalence of exposure to light at night has significant social, ecological, behavioral, and health consequences that are only now becoming apparent. This review addresses the complicated web of potential behavioral and physiological consequences resulting from exposure to light at night, as well as the large-scale medical and ecological implications that may result.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Navara”, “given” : “Kristen J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nelson”, “given” : “Randy J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Pineal Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “215-224”, “title” : “The dark side of light at night: Physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “43” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9fdd315f-6ec7-4249-b995-0824903527b3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Navara & Nelson, 2007)”, “manualFormatting” : “Navara and Nelson, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Navara & Nelson, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Navara & Nelson, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Navara dan Nelson, 2007). Paparan cahaya juga disebabkan oleh perubahan pola hidup dan penggunaan teknologi seperti penggunaan gadget (laptop, televisi, komputer dan infokus). Disisi lain, pola perilaku manusia juga mempengaruhi ritme internal tubuh ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “978-979-044-085-2”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sherwood”, “given” : “Lauralee”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “6”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yesdelita”, “given” : “dr. Brahm U. Pendit and dr. Nella”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-999”, “publisher” : “Penerbit buku kedokteran EGC”, “title” : “Fisiologl Manusia: Dari sel ke sistem”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e715093e-dfac-46aa-bca4-bb52b9773c57” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sherwood, 2011)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Sherwood, 2011)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sherwood, 2011)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sherwood, 2011)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sherwood, 2011). Dampak ini pernah diamati oleh ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2012”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Influence of Photoperiod on Stress Response and Reproduction Parameter of Male Mice ( Mus musculus L .) of Swiss Webster Strain”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0c3a71be-483e-47f4-8670-8e4eb70ddc5d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “Ridwan (2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Ridwan (2015) pada mencit jantan. Akibatnya terjadi perubahan ritmik kehidupan yang mempengaruhi faal tubuh terutama perubahan hormonal yang akan mempengaruhi sistem reproduksi.
Gangguan cahaya tersebut mengakibatkan perubahan regulasi hormon-hormon utama reproduksi, sehingga terganggunya proses ovulasi, siklus estrus, dan lamanya masa gestasi yang pada akhirnya dapat berdampak pada fertilitas. Stimulasi cahaya terus menerus ke retina dapat meningkatkan resiko stress (Kortikosteron Plasma) dari jalur Hipotalamus-Pituitari-Adrenal (HPA) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2307/1367755”, “ISSN” : “00105422”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tewary”, “given” : “P. D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dixit”, “given” : “Anand S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Condor”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1986” }, “page” : “70”, “title” : “Photoperiodic Regulation of Reproduction in Subtropical Female Yellow-Throated Sparrows (Gymnorhis xanthocollis)”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “88” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2182bb84-0b13-4de6-a099-403b077c1f90” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1079/PNS19940060”, “ISBN” : “0029-6651”, “ISSN” : “0029-6651”, “PMID” : “7886050”, “abstract” : “For wild animals, food availability usually exhibits considerable seasonal fluctuations and as a result dramatic seasonal variations in body weight, fatness and food intake are often observed. Birds and mammals living in the temperate zones or higher latitudes, therefore, time the onset of reproductive activity each year with great precision so that young are produced at the most propitious time of year. Numerous studies have now demonstrated that in such animals seasonal physiological changes governing the reactivation of the reproductive axis are tuned by external environmental change, principally photoperiod (for review, see Bronson, 1988; Bronson & Heideman, 1994). The annual daylength cycle, thus, represents the most reliable noise-free proximal factor available to entrain seasonal reproductive cycles. Food intake and body condition are seasonally and photoperiodically regulated in many mammals (Mrosovsky & Sherry, 1980). The phenomenon has been most extensively investigated in ruminants, scuirid rodents and small mammals, including several species of voles and hamsters (Bartness & Wade, 1985; Kay, 1985). The present brief review seeks to highlight aspects of the photoperiodic and seasonal regulation of food intake and metabolic cycles by examining their endogenous nature and considering the manner of their photoperiodic regulation. Two related topics will be considered. First, the role of photoperiod change and the endocrine transduction of the photoperiodic signal will be examined in relation to seasonal changes in metabolism and food intake. Second, the endogenous nature of these processes in many organisms will beemphasized. Since the field has now developed a voluminous literature, reviews and major articles are cited for further reference where appropriate.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loudon”, “given” : “a S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1994” }, “page” : “495-507”, “title” : “Photoperiod and the regulation of annual and circannual cycles of food intake.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “53” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=356e2713-bbd6-47ee-871f-6afe0be03c76” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/jez.1026”, “ISSN” : “0022104X”, “PMID” : “11351332”, “abstract” : “We examined the effects of photoperiod on pituitary levels of two types of gonadotropin (GTH), GTH I and GTH II, in masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou to study their mechanism of synthesis. In Experiment 1, the effects of long or short photoperiod combined with castration were examined using 8-month-old precocious males. Castration was carried out in early August and then the fish were reared under a short (8L16D) or long (16L8D) photoperiod for 60 days. In Experiment 2, the effects of photoperiod combined with testosterone treatment were examined using 12-month-old immature females. Silastic tubes containing testosterone (500 microg /fish) or vehicle were implanted intra-peritoneally in early October. Fish were reared under 16L8D for 60 days, and then half of the fish were transferred to 8L16D, while the remaining fish were kept under 16L8D until Day 90. In Experiment 1, GTH I contents were higher under 16L8D than under 8L16D in the castrated group on Day 30. Moreover, GTH I contents were higher in the castrated group than the control group under 16L8D on Day 30. GTH II contents increased with testicular maturation in the control groups, whereas they remained at low levels in the castrated groups regardless of photoperiodic treatment. In Experiment 2, GTH I contents did not change remarkably in all the groups, while GTH II contents were remarkably increased by testosterone treatment regardless of photoperiodic treatment. These results indicate that the synthesis of GTH I and GTH II are differently regulated by photoperiod and testosterone in masu salmon.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Amano”, “given” : “Masafumi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ikuta”, “given” : “Kazumasa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kitamura”, “given” : “Shoji”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Aida”, “given” : “Katsumi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Experimental Zoology”, “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2001” }, “page” : “449-455”, “title” : “Effects of photoperiod on pituitary gonadotropin levels in masu salmon”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “289” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84e7043d-a7a7-49dc-8be2-a34fd157c097” }, { “id” : “ITEM-4”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2108/zsj.20.963”, “ISBN” : “0289-0003”, “ISSN” : “0289-0003”, “PMID” : “12951401”, “abstract” : “Influences of photoperiod, temperature and melatonin were examined on development and colour patterns of nymphs, and sternum colour and reproductive fate of adults in Halyomorpha halys ( brevis). Short-day accelerated nymphal development, whereas long-day accelerated reproductive maturation. The two types of photoperiodic responses at different stages may help maintain the univoltinism of this species in the field, assuring the right timing for diapause and reproduction. The pronotum of fifth instar nymphs reared under LD 11:13 shows a brown-marbled colour pattern darker, with less creamy-yellowish speckles, than that of nymphs reared under LD 16:8. Short-day-reared fifth instar nymphs, which are destined to diapause in adults, had shorter white stripes on the pronotum, smaller body size, less frequent feeding and more lipid accumulation than the long-day-reared. The longer the exposure to LD 13:11 at 20u00b0C during the nymphal stage, the greater the expression of short-day associated characteristics observed in the fifth nymphal instar and adult stage. Melatonin orally administered (500 g/ml) to insects under LD 16:8 produced slightly reduced body size, suppressed feeding, extended nymphal period and increased accumulation of lipid compared to the untreated bugs, but did not affect the incidence of diapause in females. In males, melatonin retarded gonadal development under LD 16:8. These results may suggest a possible role of melatonin for the control of seasonal polyphenism and development.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Niva”, “given” : “C C”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takeda”, “given” : “M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Zoological Science”, “id” : “ITEM-4”, “issue” : “8”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2003” }, “page” : “963-970”, “title” : “Effects of photoperiod, temperature and melatonin on nymphal development, polyphenism and reproduction in Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “20” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b92ee647-8e85-48ed-946e-6248dda100ea” }, { “id” : “ITEM-5”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.12.003”, “ISBN” : “1095-6808 (Electronic)\r0091-3022 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “00913022”, “PMID” : “21156187”, “abstract” : “Photoperiodism is the ability of plants and animals to measure environmental day length to ascertain time of year. Central to the evolution of photoperiodism in animals is the adaptive distribution of energetically challenging activities across the year to optimize reproductive fitness while balancing the energetic tradeoffs necessary for seasonally-appropriate survival strategies. The ability to accurately predict future events requires endogenous mechanisms to permit physiological anticipation of annual conditions. Day length provides a virtually noise free environmental signal to monitor and accurately predict time of the year. In mammals, melatonin provides the hormonal signal transducing day length. Duration of pineal melatonin is inversely related to day length and its secretion drives enduring changes in many physiological systems, including the HPA, HPG, and brain-gut axes, the autonomic nervous system, and the immune system. Thus, melatonin is the fulcrum mediating redistribution of energetic investment among physiological processes to maximize fitness and survival. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walton”, “given” : “James C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Weil”, “given” : “Zachary M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nelson”, “given” : “Randy J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology”, “id” : “ITEM-5”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “303-319”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Influence of photoperiod on hormones, behavior, and immune function”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “32” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0c165df3-71ae-4588-bd9b-6ad47c01ac5c” }, { “id” : “ITEM-6”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.12.003.Influence”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Walton”, “given” : “James C”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Weil”, “given” : “Zachary M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nelson”, “given” : “Randy J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-6”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “303-319”, “title” : “Influence of Photoperiod on Hormones, Behavior, and Immune Function”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “32” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b01cf0c2-723b-4927-ab09-d74a72bc481a” }, { “id” : “ITEM-7”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1530/JOE-14-0141”, “ISBN” : “1479-6805”, “ISSN” : “0022-0795”, “PMID” : “24891434”, “abstract” : “Adaption to the environment is essential for survival, in all wild animal species seasonal variation in temperature and food availability needs to be anticipated. This has led to the evolution of deep-rooted physiological cycles, driven by internal clocks, which can track seasonal time with remarkable precision. Evidence has now accumulated that a seasonal change in thyroid hormone (TH) availability within the brain is a crucial element. This is mediated by local control of TH metabolizing enzymes within specialized ependymal cells lining the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus. Within these cells, de-iodinase type-2 enzyme is activated on summer day-lengths, converting metabolically inactive thyroxine (T4) to tri-iodothyronine (T3), and driving seasonal reproductive responses. Remarkably, in both birds and mammals, the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland plays an essential role. A specialized endocrine thyrotroph cell (TSH expressing) is regulated by the changing day length signal, leading to activation of TSH by long-days. This acts on adjacent TSH-receptors expressed in the hypothalamic ependymal cells, causing local regulation of de-iodinase enzymes and conversion of TH to the metabolically active T3. In mammals, the PT is regulated by the nocturnal melatonin signal. Summer-like melatonin signals activate a PT-expressed clock-regulated transcription regulator (Eya3), which in turn drives expression of the TSH-beta sub-unit, leading to a sustained increase in TSH expression. In this manner, a local pituitary timer, driven by melatonin, initiates a cascade of molecular events, led by Eya3 and which translates to seasonal changes of neuroendocrine activity in the hypothalamus”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wood”, “given” : “Shona Hiedi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loudon”, “given” : “Andrew”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “J Endocrinol”, “id” : “ITEM-7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Clocks for all seasons: unwinding the roles of circadian and interval timers in the pituitary.”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6d79c24-3876-4720-9489-7edef9eb6291” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Amano, Ikuta, Kitamura, & Aida, 2001; Loudon, 1994; Niva & Takeda, 2003; Tewary & Dixit, 1986; Walton, Weil, & Nelson, 2011, 2012; Wood & Loudon, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Trainor et al (2007); Mohawk et al (2007); Steinman et al (2012); Laredo et al (2013); Ikegami and Yoshimura and Ikegami, 2013; Shahed et al (2015); Ridwan, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Amano, Ikuta, Kitamura, & Aida, 2001; Loudon, 1994; Niva & Takeda, 2003; Tewary & Dixit, 1986; Walton, Weil, & Nelson, 2011, 2012; Wood & Loudon, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Amano, Ikuta, Kitamura, & Aida, 2001; Loudon, 1994; Niva & Takeda, 2003; Tewary & Dixit, 1986; Walton, Weil, & Nelson, 2011, 2012; Wood & Loudon, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Trainor et al., 2007; Mohawk et al., 2007; ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.12.035”, “ISBN” : “1095-6840 (Electronic)\r0016-6480 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “00166480”, “PMID” : “22245263”, “abstract” : “Many temperate-zone animals use changes in photoperiod to time breeding. Shorter term cues, like food availability, are integrated with photoperiod to adjust reproductive timing under unexpected conditions. Many mice of the genus Peromyscus breed in the summer. California mice (Peromyscus californicus), however, can breed year round, but tend to begin breeding in the winter. Glial cells may be involved in transduction of environmental signals that regulate gonadotrophin releasing hormone I (GnRH) activity. We examined the effects of diet and photoperiod on reproduction in female California mice. Mice placed on either short days (8L:16D) or long days (16L:8D) were food restricted (80% of normal intake) or fed ad libitum. Short day-food restricted mice showed significant regression of the reproductive system. GnRH-immunoreactivity was increased in the tuberal hypothalamus of long day-food restricted mice. This may be associated with the sparing effect long days have when mice are food restricted. The number of GFAP-immunoreactive fibers in proximity to GnRH nerve terminals correlated negatively with uterine size in ad libitum but not food restricted mice, suggesting diet may alter glial regulation of the reproductive axis. There was a trend towards food restriction increasing uterine expression of c-fos mRNA, an estrogen dependent gene. Similar to other seasonally breeding rodents, short days render the reproductive system of female California mice more susceptible to effects of food restriction. This may be vestigial, or it may have evolved to mitigate consequences of unexpectedly poor winter food supplies. ?? 2012 Elsevier Inc.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Steinman”, “given” : “Michael Q.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Knight”, “given” : “Jennifer A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Trainor”, “given” : “Brian C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “General and Comparative Endocrinology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “391-399”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Effects of photoperiod and food restriction on the reproductive physiology of female California mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “176” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=11ff74ab-0b0e-44b0-9c18-0eb719d63878” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Steinman, Knight, & Trainor, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “Steinman et al (2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Steinman, Knight, & Trainor, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Steinman, Knight, & Trainor, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Steinman et al., 2012; ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.06.002”, “ISSN” : “0018506X”, “PMID” : “23763907”, “abstract” : “In several vertebrate species, the effects of estrogens on male aggressive behavior can be modulated by environmental cues. In song sparrows and rodents, estrogens modulate aggression in the nonbreeding season or winter-like short days, respectively. The behavioral effects of estrogens are rapid, which generally is considered indicative of nongenomic processes. The current study further examined the hypothesis that estradiol acts nongenomically under short days by utilizing a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CX). Mice were housed in either short or long day photoperiods, and treated with an aromatase inhibitor. One hour before resident-intruder testing mice were injected with either CX or saline vehicle, and 30. min later were treated orally with either cyclodextrin conjugated estradiol or vehicle. Under short days, mice treated with estradiol showed a rapid decrease in aggressive behavior, independent of CX administration. CX alone had no effect on aggression. These results show that protein synthesis is not required for the rapid effects of estradiol on aggression, strongly suggesting that these effects are mediated by nongenomic processes. We also showed that estradiol suppressed c-fos immunoreactivity in the caudal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis under short days. No effects of estradiol on behavior or c-fos expression were observed in mice housed under long days. Previously we had also demonstrated that cage bedding influenced the directional effects of estrogens on aggression. Here, we show that the phenomenon of rapid action of estradiol on aggression under short days is a robust result that generalizes to different bedding conditions. u00a9 2013 Elsevier Inc.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Laredo”, “given” : “Sarah A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Villalon Landeros”, “given” : “Rosalina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dooley”, “given” : “James C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Steinman”, “given” : “Michael Q.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Orr”, “given” : “Veronica”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Silva”, “given” : “Andrea L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Crean”, “given” : “Katie K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Robles”, “given” : “Cindee F.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Trainor”, “given” : “Brian C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Hormones and Behavior”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “557-565”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Nongenomic effects of estradiol on aggression under short day photoperiods”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “64” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=eff03ba3-4146-4fae-918a-f5d46a227481” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Laredo et al., 2013a)”, “manualFormatting” : “Laredo et al (2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Laredo et al., 2013a)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Laredo et al., 2013a)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Laredo et al., 2013; ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Most species living outside the tropical zone undergo physiological adaptations to seasonal environmental changes and changing day length (photoperiod); this phenomenon is called photoperiodism. It is well known that the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of photoperiodism such as seasonal reproduction, but the mechanism underlying circadian clock regulation of photoperiodism remains unclear. Recent molecular analysis have revealed that, in mammals and birds, the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland acts as the relay point from light receptors, which receive information about the photoperiod, to the endocrine responses. Long-day (LD)-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the PT acts as a master regulator of seasonal reproduction in the ependymal cells (ECs) within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and activates thyroid hormone (TH) by inducing the expression of type 2 deiodinase in both LD and short-day (SD) breeding animals. Furthermore, the circadian clock has been found to be localized in the PT and ECs as well as in the circadian pacemaker(s). This review purposes to summarize the current knowledge concerning the involvement of the neuroendocrine system and circadian clock in seasonal reproduction”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yoshimura”, “given” : “Keisuke Ikegami and Takashi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “J. Reprod. Dev”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “327u2013333”, “title” : “Seasonal Time Measurement During Reproduction”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “59” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=942c4ac0-e179-421f-9829-fc4cb789acdd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “Ikegami and Yoshimura and Ikegami, 2013”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Yoshimura dan Ikegami, 2013; ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.04.010”, “ISSN” : “10956840”, “PMID” : “25910436”, “abstract” : “Blocking matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo with inhibitor GM6001 impedes photostimulated ovarian recrudescence in photoregressed Siberian hamsters. Since direct and indirect effects of MMPs influence a myriad of ovarian functions, we investigated the effect of in vivo MMP inhibition during recrudescence on ovarian mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3??-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3??-HSD), Cyp19a1 aromatase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), amphiregulin (Areg), estrogen receptors (Esr1 and Esr2), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP-1,-2,-3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), its receptor VEGFR-2, and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). Female Siberian hamsters were randomly assigned to one of four photoperiod groups: stimulatory long (LD) or inhibitory short (SD) photoperiods, or transferred from SD to LD for 2. weeks (post-transfer, PT). Half of the PT hamsters were injected (ip) daily with GM6001 (PTG). SD exposure reduced ovarian StAR, 3??-HSD, Cyp19a1, Esr1, Esr2, TIMPs 2-3, PCNA, VEGFR-2 and Ang-2 mRNA expression (. p<. 0.05), and 2. weeks of photostimulation restored mRNA expression of 3??-HSD and PCNA and increased Areg and VEGFA mRNA expression in the PT group. GM6001 treatment during photostimulation (PTG) increased TIMP-1, -2 and -3 and PCNA mRNA, but inhibited Areg mRNA expression compared to PT. Neither photoperiod nor GM6001 altered EGFR expression. Results of this study suggest that in vivo inhibition of MMP activity by GM6001 may impede ovarian recrudescence, particularly follicular growth, in two ways: (1) directly by partially inhibiting the release of EGFR ligands like Areg, thereby potentially affecting EGFR activation and its downstream pathway, and (2) indirectly by its effect on TIMPs which themselves can affect proliferation, angiogenesis and follicular growth.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shahed”, “given” : “Asha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Simmons”, “given” : “Jamie J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Featherstone”, “given” : “Sydney L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Young”, “given” : “Kelly A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “General and Comparative Endocrinology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “46-53”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition influences aspects of photoperiod stimulated ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “216” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa231eed-847f-4486-af5f-9c076617a596” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Shahed, Simmons, Featherstone, & Young, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “Shahed et al (2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Shahed, Simmons, Featherstone, & Young, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Shahed, Simmons, Featherstone, & Young, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Shahed et al., 2015 danADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2012”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Influence of Photoperiod on Stress Response and Reproduction Parameter of Male Mice ( Mus musculus L .) of Swiss Webster Strain”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0c3a71be-483e-47f4-8670-8e4eb70ddc5d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : ” Ridwan, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” } Ridwan, 2015). Mekanisme stress dari regulasi HPA dapat dilihat dari berat badan hariannya. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zakaria”, “given” : “Zuliyanto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “39-45”, “title” : “Pengaruh Fotoperiode terhadap Respon Stres dan Parameter Reproduksi pada Mencit Jantan ( Mus musculus L .) Galur Swiss Webster”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=41853624-5291-4ece-8e47-99e109a55a40” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 16 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Ridwan dan Zakaria, (2012) mengatakan bahwa kenaikan dan penurunan berat badan yang jauh dari normal mengindikasikan bahwa hewan tersebut telah mengalami stress fisiologis.
Beberapa peneliti telah menunjukkan pengaruh fotoperiode terhadap sistem reproduksi. Penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.6620/ZS.2016.55-24”, “ISSN” : “1810522X”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yu”, “given” : “Xueying”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hao”, “given” : “Yujiang”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kot”, “given” : “Brian CW”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wang”, “given” : “Ding”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Zoological Studies”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “24”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-11”, “title” : “Effect of Photoperiod Extension on the Testicular Sonographic Appearance and Sexual Behavior of Captive Yangtze Finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “55” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2da7deac-4089-4be8-8001-8bb36116a540” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yu, Hao, Kot, & Wang, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “Yu et al (2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yu, Hao, Kot, & Wang, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yu, Hao, Kot, & Wang, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Yu et al., (2016) menunjukkan bahwa pemanjangan fotoperiode berpengaruh pada penampakan testis dan peningkat perilaku seksual. Penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.12.035”, “ISBN” : “1095-6840 (Electronic)\r0016-6480 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “00166480”, “PMID” : “22245263”, “abstract” : “Many temperate-zone animals use changes in photoperiod to time breeding. Shorter term cues, like food availability, are integrated with photoperiod to adjust reproductive timing under unexpected conditions. Many mice of the genus Peromyscus breed in the summer. California mice (Peromyscus californicus), however, can breed year round, but tend to begin breeding in the winter. Glial cells may be involved in transduction of environmental signals that regulate gonadotrophin releasing hormone I (GnRH) activity. We examined the effects of diet and photoperiod on reproduction in female California mice. Mice placed on either short days (8L:16D) or long days (16L:8D) were food restricted (80% of normal intake) or fed ad libitum. Short day-food restricted mice showed significant regression of the reproductive system. GnRH-immunoreactivity was increased in the tuberal hypothalamus of long day-food restricted mice. This may be associated with the sparing effect long days have when mice are food restricted. The number of GFAP-immunoreactive fibers in proximity to GnRH nerve terminals correlated negatively with uterine size in ad libitum but not food restricted mice, suggesting diet may alter glial regulation of the reproductive axis. There was a trend towards food restriction increasing uterine expression of c-fos mRNA, an estrogen dependent gene. Similar to other seasonally breeding rodents, short days render the reproductive system of female California mice more susceptible to effects of food restriction. This may be vestigial, or it may have evolved to mitigate consequences of unexpectedly poor winter food supplies. ?? 2012 Elsevier Inc.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Steinman”, “given” : “Michael Q.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Knight”, “given” : “Jennifer A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Trainor”, “given” : “Brian C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “General and Comparative Endocrinology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “391-399”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Effects of photoperiod and food restriction on the reproductive physiology of female California mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “176” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=11ff74ab-0b0e-44b0-9c18-0eb719d63878” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Steinman et al., 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “Steinman et al (2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Steinman et al., 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Steinman et al., 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Steinman et al., (2012) menunjukkan perubahan fotoperiode pada tikus betina kalifornia menyebabkan ekspresi C-fos mRNA (gene – estrogen Defender). sedangkan penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.06.002”, “ISSN” : “0018506X”, “PMID” : “23763907”, “abstract” : “In several vertebrate species, the effects of estrogens on male aggressive behavior can be modulated by environmental cues. In song sparrows and rodents, estrogens modulate aggression in the nonbreeding season or winter-like short days, respectively. The behavioral effects of estrogens are rapid, which generally is considered indicative of nongenomic processes. The current study further examined the hypothesis that estradiol acts nongenomically under short days by utilizing a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CX). Mice were housed in either short or long day photoperiods, and treated with an aromatase inhibitor. One hour before resident-intruder testing mice were injected with either CX or saline vehicle, and 30. min later were treated orally with either cyclodextrin conjugated estradiol or vehicle. Under short days, mice treated with estradiol showed a rapid decrease in aggressive behavior, independent of CX administration. CX alone had no effect on aggression. These results show that protein synthesis is not required for the rapid effects of estradiol on aggression, strongly suggesting that these effects are mediated by nongenomic processes. We also showed that estradiol suppressed c-fos immunoreactivity in the caudal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis under short days. No effects of estradiol on behavior or c-fos expression were observed in mice housed under long days. Previously we had also demonstrated that cage bedding influenced the directional effects of estrogens on aggression. Here, we show that the phenomenon of rapid action of estradiol on aggression under short days is a robust result that generalizes to different bedding conditions. ?? 2013 Elsevier Inc.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Laredo”, “given” : “Sarah A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Villalon Landeros”, “given” : “Rosalina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dooley”, “given” : “James C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Steinman”, “given” : “Michael Q.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Orr”, “given” : “Veronica”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Silva”, “given” : “Andrea L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Crean”, “given” : “Katie K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Robles”, “given” : “Cindee F.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Trainor”, “given” : “Brian C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Hormones and Behavior”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “557-565”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Nongenomic effects of estradiol on aggression under short day photoperiods”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “64” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b9dcde33-997d-42bb-b546-b0c5bd72d6c9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Laredo et al., 2013b)”, “manualFormatting” : “Laredo et al (2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Laredo et al., 2013b)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Laredo et al., 2013b)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Laredo et al., (2013) menunjukkan banyak fotoperiode hari pendek mempengaruhi sekresi estradiol dan menekan agresivitas tikus kalifornia betina. Disisi lain, penelitian dari ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1530/rep.1.00870”, “ISSN” : “14701626”, “PMID” : “16595728”, “abstract” : “Siberian hamster reproduction is mediated by photoperiod-induced changes in gonadal activity. However, little is known about how photoperiod induces cellular changes in ovarian function. We hypothesized that exposing female hamsters to short (inhibitory) as opposed to long (control) photoperiods would induce an apoptosis-mediated disruption of ovarian function. Ovaries and plasma from hamsters exposed to either long (LD, 16 h light:8 h darkness) or short (SD, 8 h light:16 h darkness) days were collected during diestrus II after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks and processed for histology or RIA respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by in situ TUNEL and active caspase-3 protein immunolabeling. No significant differences were observed among LD hamsters for any parameter; therefore, these control data were pooled. SD exposure induced a decline in preantral follicles (P < 0.05), early antral/antral follicles (P < 0.01) and corpora lutea (P < 0.01) by week 12 as compared with LD. Terminal atretic follicles appeared by SD week 9; by week 12, these had become the predominant ovarian structures. Estradiol concentrations decreased by weeks 9 and 12 SD when compared with both LD and week-3 SD hamsters (P < 0.05); however, no changes were observed for progesterone. TUNEL-positive follicles in SD ovaries increased at week 3 and subsequently declined by week 12 as compared with LD ovaries (P < 0.01). Active capsase-3 protein immunostaining peaked at SD week 3 as compared with all other groups (P < 0.01). TUNEL and capsase-3 immunolabeling were localized to granulosa cells of late-preantral and early-antral/antral follicles. These data indicate that SD exposure rapidly induces follicular apoptosis in Siberian hamsters, which ultimately disrupts both estradiol secretion and folliculogenesis, resulting in the seasonal loss of ovarian function.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moffatt-Blue”, “given” : “C. S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sury”, “given” : “J. J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Young”, “given” : “Kelly A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Reproduction”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “771-782”, “title” : “Short photoperiod-induced ovarian regression is mediated by apoptosis in Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus)”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “131” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e18e1e42-aa70-449e-92cc-5875d0737ef7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Moffatt-Blue, Sury, & Young, 2006)”, “manualFormatting” : “Moffatt-Blue et al (2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Moffatt-Blue, Sury, & Young, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Moffatt-Blue, Sury, & Young, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Moffatt-Blue et al., (2006) menunjukkan bahwa paparan hari pendek dengan cepat menginduksi apoptosis folikel-folikel ovarium pada hamster siberia betina yang pada akhirnya mengganggu sekresi estradiol dan folikulogenesis yang mengakibatkan hilangnya fungsi ovarium. Penelitian mengenai fotoperiode pada mencit betina Swiss Webster MPF belum pernah dilakukan. Maka perlu dilakukannya sebuah penelitian mengenai efek fotoperiode terhadap reproduksi mencit betina.

Identifikasi dan Perumusan Masalah
Fotoperiode akan berpengaruh terhadap kondisi faal tubuh salah satunya adalah sistem reproduksi yang disebabkan oleh gangguan hormonal tubuh. Pada kebanyakan spesies mencit yang telah diteliti diketahui bahwa cahaya memiliki dampak terhadap reproduksi seperti tingkat stress, tahapan ovulasi, siklus reproduksi, namun untuk mencit Swiss Webster MPF (Murine Pathogen Free) Outbreed (Mus musculus domesticus. L) betina mengenai efek fotoperiode terhadap siklus reproduksi sampai saat ini masih belum dilakukan di Indonesia. Mengenai hal tersebut maka penelitian ini diadakan dan dirumuskanlah masalah sebagai berikut:
Bagiamanakah pengaruh fotoperiode terhadap siklus estrus pada mencit betina SW-MPF?
Bagaimanakah pengaruh fotoperiode terhadap variabel berat badan harian pada mencit betina SW-MPF?
Tujuan
Dari uraian diatas, tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut:
Mengetahui efek fotoperiode terhadap siklus estrus mencit betina SW-MPF.
Mengetahui pengaruh fotoperiode terhadap variabel berat badan harian pada mencit betina SW-MPF.

Manfaat
Dari uraian tersebut, manfaat dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan gambaran mengenai efek cahaya dalam siklus fotoperiodisme terhadap gambaran fisiologis reproduksi, sehingga diketahui dampaknya terhadap reproduksi khususnya betina. Data tersebut akan dijadikan informasi dasar dalam penelitian selanjutnya dan manfaat praktis dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan solusi dari permasalahan reproduksi pada manusia akibat pengaruh cahaya dalam siklus fotoperiodisme ini.
TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
Sistem Reproduksi
Mencit betina merupakan model essensial untuk penelitian mengenai siklus reproduksi ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “1415161718.10987654321”, “ISBN” : “978-0-12-394445-0”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “B. A. Croy, A.T. Yamada, F. J. DeMayo”, “given” : “S. L. Adamson”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “First”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “B. A. Croy, A.T. Yamada, F. J. DeMayo”, “given” : “S. L. Adamson”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “number-of-pages” : “1 – 659”, “publisher” : “Academic Press: ELsevier”, “publisher-place” : “Great Britain”, “title” : “The Guide To Investigation of Mouse Pregnancy”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=415a1a3b-e5ce-48e2-bda6-f2c92dc45d55” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(B. A. Croy, A.T. Yamada, F. J. DeMayo, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Croy et al (2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(B. A. Croy, A.T. Yamada, F. J. DeMayo, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(B. A. Croy, A.T. Yamada, F. J. DeMayo, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Croy et al., 2014). Mencit memasuki masa estrus pertama kali pada usia 8 -12 minggu. Saat itu pada betina terjadi ovulasi pertama ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-94-017-7246-4”, “ISBN” : “9789401772457”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhu”, “given” : “Lan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wong”, “given” : “Felix”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lang”, “given” : “Jinghe”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhu”, “given” : “Lan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-251”, “publisher” : “Springer”, “publisher-place” : “Heidelberg”, “title” : “Atlas of Surgical Correction of Female Genital Malformation”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=64e796f8-2112-4c76-9e50-2fa9cf01f9d0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zhu, Wong, & Lang, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Zhu et al (2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zhu, Wong, & Lang, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zhu, Wong, & Lang, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zhu et al., 2015). Sistem reproduksi mencit betina terdiri dari ovarium, oviduk (tuba uterin, tuba falopii), rahim dan vagina (Gambar 2a).
Ovarium merupakan pabrik penghasil telur dan hormon seks steroid yaitu estrogen dan progesteron (Zhu et al., 2015). Ovarium mencit berupa kelenjar yang berbentuk biji terletak dikanan dan kiri uterus di bawah tuba uterin dan terikat di sebelah belakang mesovarium dan tempat folikel telur yaitu folikel primer, folikel sekunder, folikel tersier, folikel de graaf, korpus rubrum, korpus luteum dan korpus albikans. Folikel-folikel telur adalah sel telur yang telah dilingkupi sel granulosa dan sel theca yang diperkembangannya telah terbentuk zona pelusida dan sel cumulus oophorus dengan struktur dan ketebalan lapisan yang berbeda dan bervariasi sesuai dengan tingkat perkembangannya ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2”, “ISBN” : “9780874216561”, “ISSN” : “0717-6163”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akbar”, “given” : “Budhi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Igarss 2014”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “1-59”, “title” : “Tumbuhan Dengan Senyawa Aktif Yang Berpotensi Sebagai Bahan Antifertilitas”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a2a2031e-6ceb-4261-a252-140957216aa9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Akbar, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Akbar, 2010).
Oviduk (tuba uterin (falopii)) merupakan penghubung antara uterus dan ovarium. Saluran ini berjumlah sepasang dan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2”, “ISBN” : “9780874216561”, “ISSN” : “0717-6163”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akbar”, “given” : “Budhi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Igarss 2014”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “1-59”, “title” : “Tumbuhan Dengan Senyawa Aktif Yang Berpotensi Sebagai Bahan Antifertilitas”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a2a2031e-6ceb-4261-a252-140957216aa9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Akbar, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Akbar, 2010). Oviduk terdiri dari bagian interstisialis, bagian ismika, bagian ampularis dan infundibulum yang berfimbrae (Croy et al., 2014). Oviduk berfungsi saat ovulasi, ovum disapu kedalam ujung infundibulum yang berfimbrae. Fungsi lain oviduk adalah kapasitasi sperma, fertilisasi dan perkembangan embrio diwilayah ampula sampai isthmus. Pengangkutan perkembangan embrio ke wilayah uterus dan merangsang pembentukan hormon ovarial, mengatur kontraksi dan relaksasi uterus dengan cara mensekresi estrogen dan menstabilkan uterus melalui sekresi progestrin dan selanjutnya menjadi progesteron diwilayah tuba falopii sampai interstisialis.
Uterus merupakan struktur muskuler yang diperlukan untuk penerimaan ovum yang dibuahi, penyediaan nutrisi dan perlindungan embrio sampai fetus serta stadium permulaan ekspulsi fetus pada waktu kelahiran. (ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2”, “ISBN” : “9780874216561”, “ISSN” : “0717-6163”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akbar”, “given” : “Budhi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Igarss 2014”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “1-59”, “title” : “Tumbuhan Dengan Senyawa Aktif Yang Berpotensi Sebagai Bahan Antifertilitas”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a2a2031e-6ceb-4261-a252-140957216aa9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “Akbar, (2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Akbar, 2010). Hormon yang paling berpengaruh pada uterus sebelum kelahiran yaitu progestrin dan progesteron, selama proses perkembangan embrio hingga fetus yaitu estradiol, estrogen, progestrin dan progesteron dan selama proses kelahiran yaitu oksitosin, prolaktin, noradrenalin, gherin dan vasopresin. Uterus mencit berbentuk “Y” dengan tipe dupleks (Zhu et al., 2015). Dinding uterus terdiri dari tiga lapisan yaitu membran serosa (perimetrium), merupakan lapisan terluar yang membungkus uterus tersusun dari jaringan ikat (Croy et al., 2014). Miometrium, merupakan lapisan kedua yang terdiri dari otot polos yang mengandung pembuluh darah dan limpa. Lapisan ketiga adalah Endometrium merupakan tempat nidasi atau implantasi serta perkembangan embrio. Tangkai uterus sangat pendek bagian terbesar meliputi miometrium dan endometrium. Dinding perimetrium berbentuk longitudinal dan disusul oleh serat otot polos. Dinding endometrium berbentuk sirkular dan masih disusun oleh otot polos ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muchsin”, “given” : “Rosanti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-96”, “publisher” : “UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA”, “title” : “Pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap histologi endometrium mencit (“, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2af44494-c898-463a-bfd6-340f4df5a5a4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Muchsin, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Muchsin, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Muchsin, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Muchsin, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Muchsin, 2009).
Vagina adalah saluran panjang yang terletak dorsal terhadap uretra dan ventral terhadap rektum, sebagai tempat penumpahan semen dari individu jantan (Croy et al., 2014). Vagina terbagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu vertibulum (bagian luar vagina) dan vagina posterior (dari muara uterus sampai serviks). Vagina sangat erat hubungannya dengan siklus estrus dan juga sangat erat kaitannya dengan interaksi hormonal terutama AWH (Anti-Wolferian Hormon) dengan estrogen dan progesteron (Muchsin, 2009). Dinding vagina tersusun dari mukosa, muscularis dan serosa. Lapisan mukosa terdiri dari sel-sel epitel squamosa, perubahan pada mukosa memperlihatkan berbagai keadaan yang fungsional tergantung pada fase dari siklus birahi (siklus estrus) mencit (Zhu et al., 2015). Pada betina yang memiliki siklus normal, sel-sel ephitelium yang membatasi vagina mengalami perubahan secara periodik yang dikontrol oleh hormon yang disekresikan oleh ovarium (Gambar 2b).
-685801958340Gambar 2. Reproduksi Mencit Betina. (A)Organ Reproduksi Mencit Betina. (B)StrukturLapisan Vagina Mencit (HE stain): 1(Lumen); 2(Mukosa); 3(Epitel berlapis pipih); 4(Lapisan Muscularis). ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Suci”, “given” : “Emmy Nurul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher” : “Universitas Halu Oleo”, “title” : “Histologi Hasil Ulas Vagina dan Waktu Siklus Estrus Mencit”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=976372a5-5d8d-4e10-aa1d-aba7550045f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Suci, 2015)
00Gambar 2. Reproduksi Mencit Betina. (A)Organ Reproduksi Mencit Betina. (B)StrukturLapisan Vagina Mencit (HE stain): 1(Lumen); 2(Mukosa); 3(Epitel berlapis pipih); 4(Lapisan Muscularis). ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Suci”, “given” : “Emmy Nurul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher” : “Universitas Halu Oleo”, “title” : “Histologi Hasil Ulas Vagina dan Waktu Siklus Estrus Mencit”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=976372a5-5d8d-4e10-aa1d-aba7550045f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Suci, 2015)

Siklus Estrus mencit berlangsung selama 4 -5 hari. Meskipun pemilihan waktu siklus dapat dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor eksteroseptif seperti cahaya, suhu, status nutrisi dan hubungan sosial (Murphy, 2007). Setiap fase dari siklus estrus dapat dikenali melaui pemeriksaan apus vagina atau sitologi vagina. Apus vagina merupakan cara yang sampai kini dianggap relatif paling mudah dan akurat untuk mempelajari faal ovarium (Murph dan Bertolin, 2014). Melalui apus vagina dapat dipelajari berbagai tingkat diferensiasi sel epitel vagina akibat regulasi hormonal ovarium yang secara tidak langsung mencerminkan perubahan fungsional ovarium (Muchsin, 2009). Siklus estrus pada mencit terdiri dari empat fase utama yaitu proestrus, estrus, metestrus, dan dietrus ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muchsin”, “given” : “Rosanti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-96”, “publisher” : “UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA”, “title” : “Pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap histologi endometrium mencit (“, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2af44494-c898-463a-bfd6-340f4df5a5a4” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2”, “ISBN” : “9780874216561”, “ISSN” : “0717-6163”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akbar”, “given” : “Budhi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Igarss 2014”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “1-59”, “title” : “Tumbuhan Dengan Senyawa Aktif Yang Berpotensi Sebagai Bahan Antifertilitas”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a2a2031e-6ceb-4261-a252-140957216aa9” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Murphy”, “given” : “Michelle”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Reproduction Supplementary”, “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “75-84”, “title” : “Morphological Changes During The Oestrous Cycle”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0833b79f-e436-4378-809b-b58b7d1c12c7” }, { “id” : “ITEM-4”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394445-0.00007-2 u00b7”, “abstract” : “The laboratory mouse is an essential model for investigation of normal mammalian physiology, dysfunction, and disease. Under conditions of long photoperiod, mice breed continuously throughout the year. In unbred mice, the estrous cycle is a continuum of approximately 4 days in length, characterized by hormonal variation and consequent morphological and physiological changes to the reproductive tract. Four stages of varying duration are recognized. Proestrus is the period during which pre- and peri-ovulatory development take place in the ovary, with consequent synthesis and secretion of estrogens. Estrus, the brief interval during which the female accepts the male and during which ovulation occurs, follows. Next is metestrus, the early luteal phase, followed by diestrus, during which progesterone is the dominant hormonal influence. Two cell types, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and squamous epithelial cells, predominate in the exfoliative cytology of mouse vagina. Stages of the estrous cycle can be identified from the assemblage of these cells. In this chapter, the continuum of morphological changes in the reproductive tract and in vaginal cytology is documented to provide tools for reproductive management of a mouse colony.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Murph”, “given” : “Kalyne Bertolin and Bruce D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Researchgate”, “id” : “ITEM-4”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Reproductive Tract Changes During The Mouse Estrous Cycle”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e0379524-1440-41c2-8470-6989619d5bd8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010; Muchsin, 2009; Murph, 2014; Murphy, 2007)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Murphy, 2007; Muchsin, 2009; Akbar, 2010; Murph and Bertolin, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010; Muchsin, 2009; Murph, 2014; Murphy, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010; Muchsin, 2009; Murph, 2014; Murphy, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Akbar, 2010).
Proestrus adalah fase sebelum estrus yaitu periode dimana folikel ovarium tumbuh menjadi folikel de graaf dibawah pengaruh FSH (Murphy, 2007). Fase ini berlangsung selama 12 jam. Setiap folikel mengalami pertumbuhan yang cepat selama 2-3 hari sebelum estrus. Perubahan hormonal yag terjadi masih didominasi oleh FSH dan mulai berkembang beberapa hormon meliputi LH, Prolactin, 17-?-Estradiol (E2) dan PL (Muchsin, 2009). Dipertengahan fase ini tepatnya 1 hari sebelum estrus terjadi peningkatan LH dan penurunan FSH yang tidak signifikan dan diakhir masa ini LH mengalami lonjakan saat 5 jam sebelum fase estrus (Akbar, 2010). Pada fase ini juga sistem reproduksi memulai persiapan-persiapan untuk pelepasan ovum dari ovarium yang membuat sekresi estrogen dalam darah semakin meningkat sehingga akan menimbulkan perubahan-perubahan fisiologis dan syaraf, disertai mulai terlihatnya perilaku reproduksi pada mencit betina peliharaan. Perubahan fisiologis yang terjadi meliputi pertumbuhan folikel meningkatnya pertumbuhan endometrium, uteri, dan serviks serta peningkatan vaskularisasi dan kretinisasi epitel vagina. Preparat apus vagina pada fase ini ditandai dengan tampak jumlah sel epitel berinti dan sel darah putih berkurang digantikan dengan sel epitel bertanduk (kornifikasi)ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muchsin”, “given” : “Rosanti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-96”, “publisher” : “UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA”, “title” : “Pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap histologi endometrium mencit (“, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2af44494-c898-463a-bfd6-340f4df5a5a4” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2”, “ISBN” : “9780874216561”, “ISSN” : “0717-6163”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. 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This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. 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Estrus adalah fase dimana betina siap untuk dikawini atau ditandai oleh penerimaan pejantan oleh hewan betina untuk berkopulasi (Suci, 2015). Saat terjadi kopulasi, fase tersebut terhitung sebagai masa awal gestasi (GD0) (Croy et al., 2014). Fase estrus ini berlangsung selama 12 jam. Folikel de graaf membesar dan menjadi matang serta ovum mengalami perubahan-perubahan kearah pematangan (Muchsin, 2009). Pada fase ini pengaruh kadar estrogen meningkat sehingga aktivitas hewan menjadi tinggi, telinganya selalu bergerak-gerak dan punggung lordosis. Ovulasi terjadi seiring dengan lonjakan LH (Navara dan Nelson, 2007). Peristwa ini hanya terjadi pada fase ini dan terjadi kembali menjelang akhir siklus estrus namun durasinya berlangsung selama 5 jam sebelum akhir masa estrus. Pada preparat apus vagina ditandai dengan menghilangnya leukosit dan epitel berinti, yang ada hanya epitel bertanduk dengan bentuk tidak beraaturan dan berukuran besar ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muchsin”, “given” : “Rosanti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-96”, “publisher” : “UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA”, “title” : “Pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap histologi endometrium mencit (“, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2af44494-c898-463a-bfd6-340f4df5a5a4” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2”, “ISBN” : “9780874216561”, “ISSN” : “0717-6163”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. 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In unbred mice, the estrous cycle is a continuum of approximately 4 days in length, characterized by hormonal variation and consequent morphological and physiological changes to the reproductive tract. Four stages of varying duration are recognized. Proestrus is the period during which pre- and peri-ovulatory development take place in the ovary, with consequent synthesis and secretion of estrogens. Estrus, the brief interval during which the female accepts the male and during which ovulation occurs, follows. Next is metestrus, the early luteal phase, followed by diestrus, during which progesterone is the dominant hormonal influence. Two cell types, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and squamous epithelial cells, predominate in the exfoliative cytology of mouse vagina. Stages of the estrous cycle can be identified from the assemblage of these cells. 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Metestrus adalah periode segera setelah fase estrus. Fase ini berlangsung selama 21 jam (Suci, 2015). Saat ini Korpus luteum tumbuh lebih cepat dari folikel sel granulosa yang telah pecah di bawah pengaruh LH dan adenohyphophysa (AdHP) (Muchsin, 2009). Metestrus sebagian berada dibawah pegaruh progesteron yang dihasilkan oleh korpus luteum. Progesteron menghambat sekresi FSH oleh AdHP sehingga menghambat pembentukan folikel de graaf yang lain dan mencegah terjadinya estrus (Akbar, 2010). Selama fase ini uterus menjadi agak lunak karena pengendoran otot uterus, hal ini dilakukan untuk mengadakan persiapan-persiapan untuk memerima dan memberi makan embrio. Pada preparat apus vagina ditandai dengan ciri-ciri epitel berinti dan leukosit terlihat kembali dan jumlah epitel bertandung makin lama makin sedikit ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muchsin”, “given” : “Rosanti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-96”, “publisher” : “UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA”, “title” : “Pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap histologi endometrium mencit (“, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2af44494-c898-463a-bfd6-340f4df5a5a4” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2”, “ISBN” : “9780874216561”, “ISSN” : “0717-6163”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. 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In this chapter, the continuum of morphological changes in the reproductive tract and in vaginal cytology is documented to provide tools for reproductive management of a mouse colony.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Murph”, “given” : “Kalyne Bertolin and Bruce D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Researchgate”, “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “1-12”, “title” : “Reproductive Tract Changes During The Mouse Estrous Cycle”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e0379524-1440-41c2-8470-6989619d5bd8” }, { “id” : “ITEM-4”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Suci”, “given” : “Emmy Nurul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher” : “Universitas Halu Oleo”, “title” : “Histologi Hasil Ulas Vagina dan Waktu Siklus Estrus Mencit”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=976372a5-5d8d-4e10-aa1d-aba7550045f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010; Muchsin, 2009; Murph, 2014; Suci, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Muchsin, 2009; Akbar, 2010; Murph and Bertolin, 2014; Suci, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010; Muchsin, 2009; Murph, 2014; Suci, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Akbar, 2010; Muchsin, 2009; Murph, 2014; Suci, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Murph dan Bertolin, 2014).
Diestrus adalah periode terakhir dan terlama dalam siklus estrus pada mencit, ternak dan mamalia. Fase ini berlangsung selama 48 jam (Suci, 2015). Serviks menutup dan lendir vagina mulai kabur dan lengket. Selaput mukosa vagina pucat dan otot uterus terus mengalami relaksasi. Pada akhir periode ini korpus luteum memperlihatkan perubahan retrogresif dan vakualisasi secara gradual (Murph dan Bertolin, 2014). Endometrium dan kelenjar-kelenjarnya berubah keukuran semula. Mulai terbentuk lagi folikel primordial, folikel primer dan sekunder yang akhirnya nanti kembali ke proestrus. Pada preparat apus vagina dijumpai banyak sel darah putih dan epitel berinti yang letaknya tersebar dan homogen (Sven dan Squires, 2004).
Setiap fase dalam siklus estrus umumnya diketahui terdapat perubahan-perubahan dan ciri-ciri yang berbeda disetiap fasenya. Gambaran-gambaran tersebut menunjukkan terjadinya regulasi hormonal pada jalur HPG. (Gambar 3.). Regulasi hormonal ini terjadi pada jalur HPG dan bervariasi ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-1-4684-7103-8”, “ISBN” : “9781461265405”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mary Hunzicker-Dunn and Neena B. Schwartz”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “1st”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “University”, “given” : “Northwestern”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1992” }, “number-of-pages” : “1 – 430”, “publisher” : “Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.”, “publisher-place” : “Evanston”, “title” : “Follicle Stimulating Hormone: Regulation of Secretion and Molecular Mechanisms of Action”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1693408f-a3cf-4c6e-adc7-19450dcb6d6f” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781441949516”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gore”, “given” : “Andrea C”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “3”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gore”, “given” : “Andrea C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2002” }, “number-of-pages” : “1 – 337”, “publisher” : “Springer Science”, “publisher-place” : “New York”, “title” : “GnRH: THE MASTER MOLECULE OF REPRODUCTION”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a7dae340-76df-4f7c-8f6f-a2f7abb639e9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002; Mary Hunzicker-Dunn and Neena B. Schwartz, 1992)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Hunzicker-Dunn, 2010; Gore, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002; Mary Hunzicker-Dunn and Neena B. Schwartz, 1992)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002; Mary Hunzicker-Dunn and Neena B. Schwartz, 1992)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hunzicker-Dunn, 2010). GnRH di hipotalamus akan diregulasikan selama ±12 jam diluar siklus reproduksi dan selama siklus reproduksi ± 40 menit disetiap fasenya dengan jumlah ± 40 – 80 nGmL-1. GnRH bekerja secara antagonis pada FSH dan LH (Gore, 2012).
Dalam menstimulasi FSH, GnRH melepaskan sebanyak 50 lipatan dan LH sebanyak >100 lipatan selama berjam-jam dengan cara menyampaikan sinyal neuronal ke pituitari, sehingga pituitari menangkap sinyal tersebut dan melepaskan sebanyak 30 – 60% FSH dengan jumlah ± 45 – 100 nGmL-1. Sedangkan LH direlease sebanyak 80% selama 2 jam dan 90% selama 5 jam, sehingga jumlah rata-rata sekresinya ± 50 – 100 nGmL-1 (Gore, 2012). Selanjutnya FSH menyampaikan sinyal pulsatif berulang-ulang ke korteks ovarium dan menimbulkan respon pembentukan dan perkembangan folikel dan merangsang ovarium untuk mensekresikan E2 melalui 17-?-estradiol sehingga E22 yang dihasilan saat itu berjumlah ± 52 – 98 nGmL-1.
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762086995Gambar 3. Keadaan Hormonal dan Sel Selama Siklus Estrus. A. Interaksi Hormonal dan Pola Fisiologis Reproduksi ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ma’ruf”, “given” : “Adrin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-8”, “title” : “Apusan Vagina Mencit ( Vagina Swab ), dan Siklus Estrus pada Mencit … Apusan Vagina Mencit ( Vagina Swab ), dan Siklus Estrus pada Mencit …”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0e6c21c4-6db9-47f9-9506-3d15c457a4d6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mau2019ruf, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Mau2019ruf, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mau2019ruf, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mau2019ruf, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ma’ruf, 2015). B. Gambaran Sel Epitel Vagina Selama Siklus Estrus (40X): A(Proestrus), B(Estrus), C(Metestrus), D(Dietrus); (Epitel kornifikasi), ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Suci”, “given” : “Emmy Nurul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher” : “Universitas Halu Oleo”, “title” : “Histologi Hasil Ulas Vagina dan Waktu Siklus Estrus Mencit”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=976372a5-5d8d-4e10-aa1d-aba7550045f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Suci, 2015)
00Gambar 3. Keadaan Hormonal dan Sel Selama Siklus Estrus. A. Interaksi Hormonal dan Pola Fisiologis Reproduksi ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ma’ruf”, “given” : “Adrin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1-8”, “title” : “Apusan Vagina Mencit ( Vagina Swab ), dan Siklus Estrus pada Mencit … Apusan Vagina Mencit ( Vagina Swab ), dan Siklus Estrus pada Mencit …”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0e6c21c4-6db9-47f9-9506-3d15c457a4d6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mau2019ruf, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Mau2019ruf, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mau2019ruf, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mau2019ruf, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ma’ruf, 2015). B. Gambaran Sel Epitel Vagina Selama Siklus Estrus (40X): A(Proestrus), B(Estrus), C(Metestrus), D(Dietrus); (Epitel kornifikasi), ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Suci”, “given” : “Emmy Nurul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher” : “Universitas Halu Oleo”, “title” : “Histologi Hasil Ulas Vagina dan Waktu Siklus Estrus Mencit”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=976372a5-5d8d-4e10-aa1d-aba7550045f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Suci, 2015)

Sedangkan LH menuju sel granulosa untuk mensekresikan estrogen dari E2 dan kolesterol dan asam asetat. Disisi yang lain, LH menuju sel tega untuk membentuk progesteron dari Progestrin dan E2. Hal ini terjadi selama ± 40 menit. Sehingga PGS yang dihasilkan ± 52-98 nGmL-1. Akibat E2 dan PGSmengalami lonjakan maka sinyal tersebut kembali ke hipotalamus untuk mensekresikan GnIH (Gonadotropin faktor 2) sehingga GnRH pun dihambat dan merangsang FSH di pituitari untuk menghasilkan Inhibitin dan LH untuk menghentikan sekresi E2 dan PGS. Sehingga E2 tidak dihasilkan dan juga PGS dan estrogen juga tidak dihasilkan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/978-1-4684-7103-8”, “ISBN” : “9781461265405”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mary Hunzicker-Dunn and Neena B. Schwartz”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “1st”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “University”, “given” : “Northwestern”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1992” }, “number-of-pages” : “1 – 430”, “publisher” : “Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.”, “publisher-place” : “Evanston”, “title” : “Follicle Stimulating Hormone: Regulation of Secretion and Molecular Mechanisms of Action”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1693408f-a3cf-4c6e-adc7-19450dcb6d6f” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781441949516”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gore”, “given” : “Andrea C”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “3”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gore”, “given” : “Andrea C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2002” }, “number-of-pages” : “1 – 337”, “publisher” : “Springer Science”, “publisher-place” : “New York”, “title” : “GnRH: THE MASTER MOLECULE OF REPRODUCTION”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a7dae340-76df-4f7c-8f6f-a2f7abb639e9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002; Mary Hunzicker-Dunn and Neena B. Schwartz, 1992)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Hunzicker-Dunn, 2010; Gore, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002; Mary Hunzicker-Dunn and Neena B. Schwartz, 1992)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gore, 2002; Mary Hunzicker-Dunn and Neena B. Schwartz, 1992)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hunzicker-Dunn, 2010).
regulasi siklus estrus bedasarkan perkembangan folikelnya terdiri dari tiga tahapan secara umum yaitu fase luteal, fase folikel, dan estrus ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.01.002”, “ISBN” : “9780851995946”, “ISSN” : “03778401”, “abstract” : “The purpose of this book is to explain the role of hormones in improving or monitoring the production, performance, reproduction, behaviour and health of animals. The focus is primarily on commerically important farm animal species.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sven”, “given” : “E. James Squires and Du00e4nicke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Animal Feed Science and Technology”, “edition” : “1”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Science”, “given” : “Department of Animal and Poultry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “number-of-pages” : “307-308”, “publisher” : “University of Guelph”, “publisher-place” : “Ontario”, “title” : “Applied Animal Endocrinology”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “114” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c1c18cc-b4a0-4c1b-9bce-b796cca1de93” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Sven and Squires, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sven dan Squires, 2004). Fase luteal adalah fase terpanjang dalam siklus dan difase ini juga kehamilan terjadi. Fase folikel adalah fase disaat folikel sel telur mengalami perkembangan dan pendewasaan. Fase estrus merupakan fase birahi dimana betina mengalami heat stand dan siap untuk dikawinkan, difase ini jugalah terjadi ovulasi, setelah itu kembali lagi ke fase luteal (Gambar 4.).
-1543051571625Gambar 4. Fase Perkembangan Ovarium Dalam Siklus Estrus. (A)Kondisi Folikel Selama Siklus Estrus Pada Mencit. (B)Skema Siklus Estrus Bedasarkan Perkembangan Folikelnya
00Gambar 4. Fase Perkembangan Ovarium Dalam Siklus Estrus. (A)Kondisi Folikel Selama Siklus Estrus Pada Mencit. (B)Skema Siklus Estrus Bedasarkan Perkembangan Folikelnya
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Saat LH mengalami lonjakan hal itu menimbulkan umpan balik positif untuk memperkuat respons di ovarium, sehingga menyebabkan ovulasi. LH yang diproduksi oleh kelenjar pituitari merangsang folikel ovarium yang sedang berkembang untuk menghasilkan estrogen, yang merangsang hipotalamus untuk menghasilkan hormon pelepas gonadotrophin dan meningkatkan produksi LH oleh hipofisis (Gambar 5.).
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-20955114935Gambar 5. Interaksi Regulasi Hormon Jalur HPG Dan Ovulasi
00Gambar 5. Interaksi Regulasi Hormon Jalur HPG Dan Ovulasi

Hormon trofik kemudian menyebabkan pelepasan dengan jumlah sekitar nanogram sampai miligram hormon akhir oleh kelenjar target. Bahwa setiap langkah dalam proses ini menghasilkan penguatan respons. Skema keseluruhan regulasi hormon metabolik diberikan dalam regulasi hormon reproduksi. Sekresi hormon dari kelenjar pituitari terjadi secara episodik atau ritmis. Hal ini diatur oleh jam biologis di SCN didalam hipotalamus. Hal ini dapat mencegah turunnya regulasi reseptor yang akan terjadi sebagai respons terhadap tingkat sekresi hormon yang terus menerus. Misalnya, kadar kortisol paling tinggi di pagi hari dan turun pada siang dan malam hari. Sekresi somatotrophin lebih banyak pada betina dibandingkan jantan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.01.002”, “ISBN” : “9780851995946”, “ISSN” : “03778401”, “abstract” : “The purpose of this book is to explain the role of hormones in improving or monitoring the production, performance, reproduction, behaviour and health of animals. The focus is primarily on commerically important farm animal species.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sven”, “given” : “E. James Squires and Du00e4nicke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Animal Feed Science and Technology”, “edition” : “1”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Science”, “given” : “Department of Animal and Poultry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “number-of-pages” : “307-308”, “publisher” : “University of Guelph”, “publisher-place” : “Ontario”, “title” : “Applied Animal Endocrinology”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “114” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c1c18cc-b4a0-4c1b-9bce-b796cca1de93” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Sven and Squires, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sven dan Squires, 2004) (Gambar 6.).

Perbedaan frekuensi dari pelepasan GnRH oleh hipotalamus akan mempengaruhi pelepasan LH dan FSH oleh hipofisis (Gore, 2012). Pelepasan hormon oleh hipofisis anterior diatur oleh kontrol umpan balik (Murph dan Bertolin, 2014). Ada umpan balik singkat dari hipofisis anterior ke hipotalamus dan loop umpan balik yang panjang dari hormon utama pada SSP, hipotalamus atau hipofisis anterior ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.01.002”, “ISBN” : “9780851995946”, “ISSN” : “03778401”, “abstract” : “The purpose of this book is to explain the role of hormones in improving or monitoring the production, performance, reproduction, behaviour and health of animals. The focus is primarily on commerically important farm animal species.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sven”, “given” : “E. James Squires and Du00e4nicke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Animal Feed Science and Technology”, “edition” : “1”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Science”, “given” : “Department of Animal and Poultry”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “number-of-pages” : “307-308”, “publisher” : “University of Guelph”, “publisher-place” : “Ontario”, “title” : “Applied Animal Endocrinology”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “114” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8c1c18cc-b4a0-4c1b-9bce-b796cca1de93” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Sven and Squires, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sven, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sven dan Squires, 2004).
-209552581910Gambar 6. Regulasi dari Jalur HPG (Hipotalamus – Pituitari – Gonad)
00Gambar 6. Regulasi dari Jalur HPG (Hipotalamus – Pituitari – Gonad)

Fotoperiode
Fotoperiode adalah ritme kehidupan yang siklusnya mengikuti pola cahaya hingga mendekati 24 jam per hari (Walton et al., 2011). Pola ini diatur oleh ritme sirkardian tubuh Ritme sirkadian merupakan mekanisme fisiologis yang mengatur tentang lokomosi atau pergerakan, tindakan dan istirahat untuk menstabilkan kondisi faal tubuh. Salah satunya adalah dalam mekanisme adaptasi terhadap lingkungan berupa fotoperiode. Efek yang terjadi jika tubuh tidak bisa menyamakan dengan kondisi lingkungan berupa fotoperiode ini akan menyebabkan kerusakan mekanisme homeostatis tubuh terutama dalam sistem reproduksi (Walton et al., 2012). Hal ini terjadi akibat pengaruh cahaya yang intensif dan melewati periode normal CCL (Chronic Constant Light). Fenomena ritme fotoperiode ini mengalami lima kali siklus dalam 24 jam meliputi periode gelap (0 jam T : 12 jam G), periode antara hari pendek (6 jam T : 18 jam G), periode normal (12 jam T : 12 jam G), periode antara hari panjang (18 jam T : 6 jam G) dan periode terang (24 jam T : 0 jam G) (Ridwan dan Zakaria, 2012). Dalam kasus ini yang paling berpengaruh adalah respon stress dan fisiologis endokrin yang merangsang atau mempengaruhi reproduksi dan mempengaruhi angiogenesis pembuluh darah akibat produksi hormon kortisol plasma yang tinggi dan mengalami gangguan di jalur HPA (Ridwan, 2015) dan kerusakan pupil serta kelejar pineal akibat terganggunya regulasi hormon kegelapan atau hormon melatonin yang sangat banyak dari keadaan normal ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1530/rep.1.00448”, “ISSN” : “14701626”, “PMID” : “15695614”, “abstract” : “Non-pathological angiogenesis in adults is rare and is largely thought to be restricted to wound healing and female reproductive cycles. Adult male rodents, however, display seasonal angiogenesis to support seasonal changes in reproductive tissue morphology. Non-tropical rodents use photoperiod (day length) to determine the time of year. During short days, the reproductive system undergoes involution and mating behaviours stop, adaptations which presumably allow energy resources to be shifted to processes necessary for winter survival. We compared the patterns of gene expression involved in angiogenesis in testes of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) following 7, 14, 21 or 34 weeks of long or short day lengths. Short days decreased body mass, reproductive tract mass and seminiferous tubule diameter. Potential genes involved in seasonal angiogenesis were screened by hybridizing testicular RNA from each group to angiogenesis-specific microarrays. Genes that were > or =6-fold different between long- and short-day testes (i.e. hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha(Hif1alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 (Tgfbetar3) and tumour necrosis factor (Tnf )) were sequenced and expression differences were compared throughout gonadal regression and recrudescence using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results suggest that short days trigger expression of Hif1alpha, Serpine1, and Tgfbetar3 to inhibit angiogenesis or promote apoptosis during testicular regression, and also trigger expression of Tnf to promote angiogenesis during testicular recrudescence.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pyter”, “given” : “Leah M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hotchkiss”, “given” : “Andrew K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nelson”, “given” : “Randy J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Reproduction”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “page” : “201-209”, “title” : “Photoperiod-induced differential expression of angiogenesis genes in testes of adult Peromyscus leucopus”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “129” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e95f2eed-3cc8-4f3a-a623-305e86fa38ab” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zakaria”, “given” : “Zuliyanto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “39-45”, “title” : “Pengaruh Fotoperiode terhadap Respon Stres dan Parameter Reproduksi pada Mencit Jantan ( Mus musculus L .) Galur Swiss Webster”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=41853624-5291-4ece-8e47-99e109a55a40” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0851993591”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moberg and Mench”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “4TH ED.”, “editor” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moberg and Mench”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “publisher” : “CABI”, “publisher-place” : “WALLINGFORD”, “title” : “The Biology of Animal Stress”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d43d9163-6294-4082-91c8-353df674ae36” }, { “id” : “ITEM-4”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-4”, “issue” : “May 2012”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Influence of Photoperiod on Stress Response and Reproduction Parameter of Male Mice ( Mus musculus L .) of Swiss Webster Strain”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=11b64362-b9e7-426f-87b8-bb4b3decfc53” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Moberg and Mench, 2012; Pyter, Hotchkiss, & Nelson, 2005; Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ridwan and Zakaria, 2012; Moberg and Mench, 2012; Ridwan, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Moberg and Mench, 2012; Pyter, Hotchkiss, & Nelson, 2005; Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Moberg and Mench, 2012; Pyter, Hotchkiss, & Nelson, 2005; Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Moberg dan Mench, 2012).
Cahaya akan diterima oleh mata sebagai reseptor dan diteruskan ke SCN (Supra Chiasmatic Nucleus). Hal ini sangat erat hubungannya dengan ritme sikardiaan, khususnya regulasi hormonal tubuh ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2012”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Influence of Photoperiod on Stress Response and Reproduction Parameter of Male Mice ( Mus musculus L .) of Swiss Webster Strain”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0c3a71be-483e-47f4-8670-8e4eb70ddc5d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ridwan, 2015). Bentuk pengaturan SCN terhadap prosess faal tubuh meliputi regulasi HPG (Hipotalamus – Pituitari – Gonad) dan juga jalur HPA (Hipotalamus – Pituitari – Adrenal). HPG merupakan sumbu utama reproduksi dan SCN juga mengatur sekresi sejumlah hormon melalui hubungan syaraf dengan neuron–neuron penghasil hormon di hipotalamus. Dalam keadaan normal regulasi kortisol meningkat pada pagi hari dan menurun saat sore hingga malam hari (Moberg dan Mench, 2012).
SCN merupakan region cental fotoreseptor diwilayah otak depan, pada saat cahaya mengalami siklus, maka SCN pun berperan sebagai koordinator yang mengatur ritme sikardian, hoemostatis tubuh, respon adaptasi organisme terhadap perbahan ekstrim pada lingkungan (ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2183/pjab.86.391”, “ISBN” : “0386-2208”, “ISSN” : “0386-2208”, “PMID” : “20431263”, “abstract” : “We have demonstrated that in rats activities of various enzymes related to gluconeogenesis and amino acid metabolism show circadian rhythms. Based on these results, we have explored the molecular mechanisms underlying circadian oscillation and phase response to light of the master clock located in the dorsomedial subdivision of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and found various proteins closely related to phase response such as BIT/SHPS-1 and those of circadian oscillation, some of which are involved in protein-tyrosine phosphorylation.On the other hand, we have presented several lines of evidence that the ventrolateral subdivision of the SCN includes not only the control center of energy supply to the brain, but also that of homeostasis such as blood glucose, blood pressure, water balance, and body temperature. We have also shown that besides these functions, the latter subdivision is involved in the regulations of hormone secretions such as insulin, glucagon, corticosterone and vasopressin. It has been also shown by electrophysiological means that light exposure to rat eye enhances sympathetic nerve activity, whereas it depresses parasympathetic nerve activity. Thus, environmental light is implicated not only in the phase-shift through the retinohypthalamic tract (RHT), but also control of autonomic nerve activities through the RHT, It is also discussed in this review how the two divisions are interconnected and how environmental light is involved in this interconnection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakagawa”, “given” : “Hachiro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Okumura”, “given” : “Nobuaki”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and biological sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “391-409”, “title” : “Coordinated regulation of circadian rhythms and homeostasis by the suprachiasmatic nucleus.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “86” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f133abbb-08d4-426e-99a7-2145bf9c0406” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nakagawa & Okumura, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “Nakagawa and Okumura, (2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nakagawa & Okumura, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nakagawa & Okumura, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Nakagawa dan Okumura, 2010). Pada saat gelap maka SCN akan merangsang melatonin melalui baseline serotonin (Kageyama et al., 2007). Melatonin ini akan segera mempengaruhi jalur HPG tersebut, salah satunya adalah penghambatan regulasi gonadotropin yang berdampak pada regulasi FSH dan LH dan juga merangsang adrenokortikotropik untuk memecah kolestrol menjadi kortikosteron dan kortikosteron ini lah yang sebagian dari jalur HPA nya menghasilkan dopamin (ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/1880-6805-31-14”, “ISBN” : “1880-6805 (Electronic)\n1880-6791 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “1880-6805”, “PMID” : “22738673”, “abstract” : “The thermal environment is one of the most important factors that can affect human sleep. The stereotypical effects of heat or cold exposure are increased wakefulness and decreased rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep. These effects of the thermal environment on sleep stages are strongly linked to thermoregulation, which affects the mechanism regulating sleep. The effects on sleep stages also differ depending on the use of bedding and/or clothing. In semi-nude subjects, sleep stages are more affected by cold exposure than heat exposure. In real-life situations where bedding and clothing are used, heat exposure increases wakefulness and decreases slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Humid heat exposure further increases thermal load during sleep and affects sleep stages and thermoregulation. On the other hand, cold exposure does not affect sleep stages, though the use of beddings and clothing during sleep is critical in supporting thermoregulation and sleep in cold exposure. However, cold exposure affects cardiac autonomic response during sleep without affecting sleep stages and subjective sensations. These results indicate that the impact of cold exposure may be greater than that of heat exposure in real-life situations; thus, further studies are warranted that consider the effect of cold exposure on sleep and other physiological parameters.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Okamoto-Mizuno”, “given” : “Kazue”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mizuno”, “given” : “Koh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Physiological Anthropology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “14”, “title” : “Effects of thermal environment on sleep and circadian rhythm.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “31” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0b07f21b-725a-411a-aeab-7dc1b74344d6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Okamoto-Mizuno & Mizuno, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “Okamoto et al (2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Okamoto-Mizuno & Mizuno, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Okamoto-Mizuno & Mizuno, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Okamoto et al., 2012). Saat itulah respon stress terjadi dan ini berpengaruh terhadap reproduksi mengenai struktur ovarium akibat terpengaruhnya hormon FSH dan LH ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1530/REP-06-0025”, “ISBN” : “1470-1626”, “ISSN” : “14701626”, “PMID” : “17244735”, “abstract” : “During oocyte growth, chromatin structure is altered globally and gene expression is silenced. To investigate the involvement of epigenetic modifications in the regulation of these phenomena, changes in global DNA methylation and in various histone modifications, i.e. acetylation of H3K9, H3K18, H4K5, and H4K12, and methylation of H3K4 and H3K9, were examined during the growth of mouse oocytes. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the signal intensities of all these modifications increased during growth and that fully grown, germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes showed the most modifications. Since acetylation of most of the lysine residues on histones and methylation of H3K4 are associated with active gene expression, the increased levels of these modifications do not seem to be associated with gene silencing in GV-stage oocytes. Given that there are two types of GV-stage oocytes with different chromatin configurations and transcriptional activities, the epigenetic modification statuses of these two types were compared. The levels of all the epigenetic modifications examined were higher in the SN(surrounded nucleolus)-type oocytes, in which highly condensed chromatin is concentrated in the area around the nucleolus and gene expression is silenced than in the NSN(not surrounded nucleolus)-type oocytes, in which less-condensed chromatin does not surround the nucleolus and gene expression is active. In addition, the expression levels of various enzymes that catalyze histone modifications were shown by RT-PCR to increase with oocyte growth. Taken together, the results show that all of the epigenetic modifications increased in a concerted manner during oocyte growth, and suggest that these increases are not associated with gene expression.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kageyama”, “given” : “Sun Ichiro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liu”, “given” : “Honglin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kaneko”, “given” : “Naoto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ooga”, “given” : “Masatoshi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nagata”, “given” : “Masao”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Aoki”, “given” : “Fugaku”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Reproduction”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “85-94”, “title” : “Alterations in epigenetic modifications during oocyte growth in mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “133” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=81962d22-f647-4bec-b924-fec8cf448c52” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Kageyama et al., 2007)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Kageyama et al (2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Kageyama et al., 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Kageyama et al., 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/1880-6805-31-14”, “ISSN” : “1880-6805”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Okamoto-Mizuno”, “given” : “Kazue”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mizuno”, “given” : “Koh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gilbert”, “given” : “SS”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “van den”, “family” : “Heuvel”, “given” : “CJ”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ferguson”, “given” : “SA”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dawson”, “given” : “D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hasler”, “given” : “G”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Buysse”, “given” : “DJ”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : 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“given” : “KJ”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tamotsu”, “given” : “S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Morita”, “given” : “T”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Oishi”, “given” : “T”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shido”, “given” : “O”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sugimoto”, “given” : “N”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tanabe”, “given” : “M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sakurada”, “given” : “S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Klerman”, “given” : “EB”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rimmer”, “given” : “DW”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dijk”, “given” : “DJ”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kronauer”, “given” : “RE”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rizzo”, “given” : “JF”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Czeisler”, “given” : “CA”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kondo”, “given” : “M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokura”, “given” : “H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wakamura”, “given” : “T”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hyun”, “given” : “KJ”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tamotsu”, “given” : “S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Morita”, “given” : “T”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Oishi”, “given” : “T”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “Van”, “family” : “Someren”, “given” : “E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Physiological Anthropology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “14”, “title” : “Effects of thermal environment on sleep and circadian rhythm”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “31” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d4b3a542-8029-440a-b3fd-09ebe1291bf9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Okamoto-Mizuno et al., 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “Mizuno et al (2012))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Okamoto-Mizuno et al., 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Okamoto-Mizuno et al., 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Mizuno et al., 2012).
HPA merupakan jalur utama dari peristiwa indikasi terjadinya stres. Cahaya telah merubah regulasi jalur HPG menjadi HPA melalui SCN. Mekanisme HPA adalah mekanisme terbaik disaat hewan mengalami stres, sebagai hasilnya mensekresi hormon steroid dari kelenjar adrenal. (Gambar 7.) menggambarkan bagaimana relasi antar stres. Faktor hipotalamus, terdiri dari CRH (Corticotropin Releasing Hormon), DA (Dopamin), GRHR (Growth Hormon Releasing Hormon), GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormon), SS (Somatostatin), TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormon), VP (Vasopressin) (+ (faktor stimultan), – (faktor hambatan)) dari hipotalamus. Hormon Pituitari meliputi ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormon), FSH, LH, PRL (Prolaktin), TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormon), IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor) (Moberg dan Mench, 2012). Ketika rangsangan dari lingkungan di terima oleh Cascade, maka signal tersebut akan menuju ke Sistem Syaraf Pusat (SSP), informasi tersebut kemudian diterjemahkan dan akibatnya adalah CRH di hipotalamus dan VP akan merangsang pituitari untuk mensekresikan chatecolamin, yang selanjutnya diubah menjadi ACTH, selanjutnya ACTH distimulasikan di jalur korteks adrenal dan mengubah kolesterol menjadi glukokortikoid dan akhirnya membentuk kortikosteron (Ben-Hamo et al., 2016).
-209552232025Gambar 7. Regulasi Kortikosteron Plasma Dari Jalur HPA
00Gambar 7. Regulasi Kortikosteron Plasma Dari Jalur HPA

Dalam keadaan normal, HPA berperan dalam proses kelahiran dimana selama proses pendarahan HPA akan merangsang regulasi kompleks hormon meliputi CRH, VP, Oxytocin dan katekolamin. Saat hipotensi didalam proses kelahiran, maka HPA akan mempengaruhi komplek neurohormonal dengan jalur spesifik. Sehingga menyebabkan bayi terdorong keluar (Ben-Hamo et al., 2016).
Penelitian yang Relevan
Beberapa negara lain hanya terbatas pada durasi cahaya pendek (6 jam dan 10 jam terang) dan durasi cahaya panjang (18 jam dan 14 jam terang) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1152/ajpregu.00686.2009”, “ISBN” : “1522-1490 (Electronic)\r0363-6119 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “0363-6119”, “PMID” : “20357020”, “abstract” : “Natural genetic variation in reproduction and life history strategies is a manifestation of variation in underlying regulatory neuronal and endocrine systems. A test of the hypothesis that genetic variation in luteinizing hormone (LH) level could be related to a life history trait, seasonal reproduction, was conducted on artificial selection lines from a wild-source population of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Variation exists in the degree of suppression of reproduction by winter short-day photoperiods (SD) in wild-source individuals and in the laboratory population. In this population, most individuals from a photoperiod-responsive (R) artificial selection line are strongly suppressed reproductively in SD, while most individuals from a photoperiod-nonresponsive (NR) artificial selection line are only weakly reproductively suppressed in SD. We assayed levels of LH to test for genetic variation between lines that could contribute to variation in reproductive status in SD. Females from both lines were raised in long-day photoperiods (LD) or SD, ovariectomized under isoflurane anesthesia, and given estradiol implants. Levels of LH were significantly higher in the NR line than in the R line, indicating genetic variation for levels of LH. Levels of LH were higher in LD than in SD, indicating that levels of LH were sensitive to photoperiod treatment even with a controlled level of estradiol negative feedback. The results indicate that there is genetic variation in levels of LH that could be functionally important both in the laboratory in SD and in the wild population in winter. Thus genetic variation in levels of LH is a plausible causal factor determining winter reproductive phenotype in the wild population.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Heideman”, “given” : “Paul D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pittman”, “given” : “Julian T”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schubert”, “given” : “Kristin a”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dubois”, “given” : “Christen M R”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bowles”, “given” : “Jennifer”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lowe”, “given” : “Sean M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Price”, “given” : “Matthew R”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “R1543-R1548”, “title” : “Variation in levels of luteinizing hormone and reproductive photoresponsiveness in a population of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “298” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=79f189d3-49bc-4c4f-8b67-a84cfe0e6102” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Paul D Heideman et al., 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Heideman et al (2010”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Paul D Heideman et al., 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Paul D Heideman et al., 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Heideman et al., 2010; ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1186/1477-7827-8-79”, “ISSN” : “1477-7827”, “PMID” : “20579366”, “abstract” : “BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated as mediators for ovarian remodeling events, and are involved with ovarian recrudescence during seasonal breeding cycles in Siberian hamsters. However, involvement of these proteases as the photoinhibited ovary undergoes atrophy and regression had not been assessed. We hypothesized that 1) MMPs and their tissue inhibitors, the TIMPs would be present and differentially regulated during the normal estrous cycle in Siberian hamsters, and that 2) MMP/TIMP mRNA and protein levels would increase as inhibitory photoperiod induced ovarian degeneration.\n\nMETHODS: MMP-2, -9, -14 and TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA and protein were examined in the stages of estrous (proestrus P, estrus E, diestrus I DI, and diestrus II DII) in Siberian hamsters, as well as after exposure to 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of inhibitory short photoperiod (SD).\n\nRESULTS: MMP-9 exhibited a 1.6-1.8 fold decrease in mRNA expression in DII (p<0.05), while all other MMPs and TIMPs tested showed no significant difference in mRNA expression in the estrous cycle. Extent of immunostaining for MMP-2 and -9 peaked in P and E then significantly declined in DI and DII (p<0.05). Extent of immunostaining for MMP-14, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was significantly more abundant in P, E, and DI than in DII (p<0.05). Localization of the MMPs and TIMPs had subtle differences, but immunostaining was predominant in granulosa and theca cells, with significant differences noted in staining intensity between preantral follicles, antral follicles, corpora lutea, and stroma classifications. No significant changes were observed in MMP and TIMP mRNA or extent of protein immunostaining with exposure to 3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks of SD, however protein was present and was localized to follicular and luteal steroidogenic cells.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Although MMPs appear to be involved in the normal ovarian estrus cycle at the protein level in hamsters, those examined in the present study are unlikely to be key players in the slow atrophy of tissue as seen in Siberian hamster ovarian regression.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Vrooman”, “given” : “Lisa A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Young”, “given” : “Kelly A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “79”, “title” : “Ovarian matrix metalloproteinases are differentially regulated during the estrous cycle but not during short photoperiod induced regression in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c0ca3432-7cbd-4ecd-86e6-7a683b06f26e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Vrooman & Young, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “Vrooman and Young, 2010”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Vrooman & Young, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Vrooman & Young, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Vrooman dan Young, 2010 dan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.06.030”, “ISBN” : “1873-507X (Electronic)\r0031-9384 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “1873507X”, “PMID” : “27343805”, “abstract” : “The relationships between biological rhythms and affective disorders are known but their underlying biology not clear. There is difficulty in studying circadian rhythms in humans and appropriate animal models are hard to identify or develop. Some studies show that diurnal rodents can be advantageous model animals for the study of interactions between biological rhythms and affective disorders but previous studies did not include females whereas in humans there are sex differences in affective disorders. The present study tested the effects of short photoperiods in both males and females of the diurnal golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). Adult, female and male spiny mice were housed in either neutral photoperiod (12:12 light/dark; NP), or short photoperiod (5:19 light/dark; SP) conditions. After 3??weeks acclimatization, animals were tested for spontaneous activity in an open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), sweet solution preference (SSP) and the forced swim test (FST). Both sexes responded to the SP, but while SP males showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and depression-like behavior in the FST, females showed increased activity, reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, depression-like response in the SSP and no effect in the FST. Differences between sexes were previously demonstrated in behavioral tests that followed a variety of manipulations, and were usually explained in the context of sex hormones. Yet, the current results cannot be compared with previous data from diurnal rodents and further testing of females from other diurnal rodents are needed to explore whether these differences are a general phenomenon or possibly unique to golden spiny mice.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ben-Hamo”, “given” : “Miriam”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tal”, “given” : “Katy”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Paz-Cohen”, “given” : “Rotem”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kronfeld-Schor”, “given” : “Noga”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Einat”, “given” : “Haim”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Physiology and Behavior”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-6”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Differential effects of photoperiod length on depression- and anxiety-like behavior in female and male diurnal spiny mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “165” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=eb077434-7e44-433b-94ca-3b9bbcef24ae” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ben-Hamo, Tal, Paz-Cohen, Kronfeld-Schor, & Einat, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “Ben-Hamo et.al (2016))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ben-Hamo, Tal, Paz-Cohen, Kronfeld-Schor, & Einat, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ben-Hamo, Tal, Paz-Cohen, Kronfeld-Schor, & Einat, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Ben-Hamo et al., 2016). Serta periode optimum (12 jam Terang) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/B978-012426400-7.50042-X”, “ISBN” : “9780124264007”, “ISSN” : “00010782”, “abstract” : “Animal Welfare Unit, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 21, Orange NSW 2800. Ph (02) 6391 3682 Fax (02) 6391 3570 or Sydney Office Ph (02) 9872 0571 Fax (02) 9871 6938 Animal Ethics Infolink:”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fawcett”, “given” : “Anne”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “ARRP Guideline”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “1-143”, “title” : “Guideline 22 Guidelines for the Housing of Mice in Scientific Institutions Table of Contents”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9a166134-9494-4db6-906d-e5a35cab1ccc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fawcett, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Fawcett 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fawcett, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fawcett, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fawcett, 2012). Sementara mengenai titik kritis dan hubungannya dengan parameter reproduksi telah dilakukan pada mencit jantan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zakaria”, “given” : “Zuliyanto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “39-45”, “title” : “Pengaruh Fotoperiode terhadap Respon Stres dan Parameter Reproduksi pada Mencit Jantan ( Mus musculus L .) Galur Swiss Webster”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=41853624-5291-4ece-8e47-99e109a55a40” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “May 2012”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Influence of Photoperiod on Stress Response and Reproduction Parameter of Male Mice ( Mus musculus L .) of Swiss Webster Strain”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0c3a71be-483e-47f4-8670-8e4eb70ddc5d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ridwan and Zakaria 2012; 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ridwan dan Zakaria 2012 dan Ridwan, 2015).
Penelitian pada mencit betina selain perilaku pembuatan sarang, sifat reproduksi mencit yang mendapatkan pakan tambahan kemangi kering ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Somala”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “title” : “Mendapat Pakan Tambahan Kemangi Mendapat Pakan Tambahan Kemangi”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4b63c071-679d-4c58-95e8-07e22b33b97f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Somala, 2006)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Somala, 2006)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Somala, 2006)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Somala, 2006)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” } Somala, (2006), pertambahan berat badan dari ekstrak biji pepaya ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi efek ekstrak air biji pepaya terhadap reproduksi mencit betina ditinjau dari aspek pertambahan berat badan. Mencit strain Swiss Webster betina digunakan sebagai hewan uji. Hewan uji dibagi dalam 5 kelompok perlakuan, yaitu K(-), bahan perlakuan berupa akuades; K(+), bahan perlakuan sediaan pil kontrasepsi merk X dengan dosis ; P1, bahan perlakuan ekstrak air biji pepaya dengan dosis 1,4 mg/ekor/hari; P2, bahan perlakuan ekstrak air biji pepaya dengan dosis 3,5 mg/ekor/hari; P3, bahan perlakuan ekstrak air biji pepaya dengan dosis 1,4 mg/ekor/hari. Masing-masing kelompok perlakuan diulang 7 kali. Biji pepaya diperoleh dari pohon pepaya lokal diJawa Tengah. Pemberian bahan perlakuan secara oral selama 21 hari berturut-turut.Pemberian pakan dan minum dilakukan secara ad libitum. Parameter yang diamati adalah pertambahan berat badan, konsumsi pakan, dan konsumsi minum. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis variansi dengan taraf kepercayaan 95% dan uji lanjut Duncan.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan nyata terhadap pertambahan berat badan (P>0,05) padasemua kelompok hewan, terdapat perbedaan nyata pada konsumsi pakan (P<0,05) antara K(+) dan P1dan terdapat perbedaan nyata pada konsumsi minum (P<0,05) antara P2 dengan K(+) dan P1. Kesimpulan penelitian adalah pemberian biji pepaya dengan paparan kronis tidak mempengaruhi pertambahan berat badan mencit.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mardiati”, “given” : “Siti Muflichatun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sitasiwi”, “given” : “Agung Janika”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Buletin Anatomi dan Fisiologi”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-6”, “title” : “Buletin Anatomi dan Fisiologi Volume 1 Nomor 1 Agustus 2016 Pertambahan Berat Badan Mencit ( Mus musculus L . ) Setelah Perlakuan Ekstrak Air Biji Pepaya ( Carica papaya Linn .) Secara Oral Selama 21 Hari Weight Gain Mice ( Mus musculus L . ) after Treatm”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ab335754-79bd-4ff7-808e-6d90481e0794” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mardiati & Sitasiwi, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Mardiati and Sitasiwi, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mardiati & Sitasiwi, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mardiati & Sitasiwi, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Mardiati dan Sitasiwi, (2016) dan gambaran histopatologis dan siklus estrus mencit akibat pemberian MSG ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Suci”, “given” : “Emmy Nurul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher” : “Universitas Halu Oleo”, “title” : “Histologi Hasil Ulas Vagina dan Waktu Siklus Estrus Mencit”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=976372a5-5d8d-4e10-aa1d-aba7550045f2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Suci, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Suci, 2015). Pembagian durasi cahaya (fotoperiode) atas lamanya periode terang dalam satu siklus gelap terang harian (24 Jam) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2012”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Influence of Photoperiod on Stress Response and Reproduction Parameter of Male Mice ( Mus musculus L .) of Swiss Webster Strain”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0c3a71be-483e-47f4-8670-8e4eb70ddc5d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ridwan, 2015). Titik kritis dilakukan berdasarkan saran penelitian dari ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Most species living outside the tropical zone undergo physiological adaptations to seasonal environmental changes and changing day length (photoperiod); this phenomenon is called photoperiodism. It is well known that the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of photoperiodism such as seasonal reproduction, but the mechanism underlying circadian clock regulation of photoperiodism remains unclear. Recent molecular analysis have revealed that, in mammals and birds, the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland acts as the relay point from light receptors, which receive information about the photoperiod, to the endocrine responses. Long-day (LD)-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the PT acts as a master regulator of seasonal reproduction in the ependymal cells (ECs) within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and activates thyroid hormone (TH) by inducing the expression of type 2 deiodinase in both LD and short-day (SD) breeding animals. Furthermore, the circadian clock has been found to be localized in the PT and ECs as well as in the circadian pacemaker(s). This review purposes to summarize the current knowledge concerning the involvement of the neuroendocrine system and circadian clock in seasonal reproduction”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yoshimura”, “given” : “Keisuke Ikegami and Takashi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “J. Reprod. Dev”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “327u2013333”, “title” : “Seasonal Time Measurement During Reproduction”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “59” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=942c4ac0-e179-421f-9829-fc4cb789acdd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ikegami and Yoshimura and Ikegami, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Ikegami dan Yoshimura dan Ikegami, (2013) dimana periode kritis hingga saat ini belum diketahui dampaknya pada betina.
Disisi lain, penelitian mengenai fotoperiodisme telah menunjukkan dampaknya terhadap reproduksi salah satunya adalah perubahan struktur ovarium akibat meningkatnya korpus luteum dan menurunnya jumlah folikel ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1530/REP-12-0155”, “ISSN” : “14701626”, “abstract” : “Many seasonal breeders time their reproductive efforts to specific times of the year to ensure adequate resources for the production and care of young. For long-day (LD) breeders, females born before the summer solstice (LDs) reach sexual maturity quickly and often breed that same year, whereas females born after the summer solstice (short days (SDs)) may delay reproductive development to the following spring when environmental conditions are favorable for reproduction. In Siberian hamsters, development in SD is associated with structural and functional differences in the ovary compared with females held in LD, including a greater number of primordial follicles and an abundance of hypertrophied granulosa cells (HGCs), which are immunoreactive for anti-Mu00fc llerian hormone. The goal of this study was to determine whether SD-induced gonadotropin suppression is responsible for these phenotypic differences. Gonadotropin levels were suppressed in LD hamsters using the GNRH antagonist acyline. Conversely, to determine whether the SD ovarian phenotype is completely reversed by gonadotropin stimulation, recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) was administered. Our treatments were successful in mimicking FSH concentrations of the opposite photoperiod, but they did not produce a comparable change in the ovarian phenotype. Most notable was the lack of HGCs in the ovaries of acyline-treated LD females. Similarly, HGCs were maintained in the ovaries of SD females treated with rhFSH. Our data suggest that gonadotropins alone do not account for the SD ovarian phenotype. Future studies will determine whether SD-induced changes in other factors underlie these phenotypic changes.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zysling”, “given” : “D. A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Park”, “given” : “S. U.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “McMillan”, “given” : “E. L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Place”, “given” : “N. J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Reproduction”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “603-616”, “title” : “Photoperiod-gonadotropin mismatches induced by treatment with acyline or FSH in Siberian hamsters: Impacts on ovarian structure and function”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “144” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=54bda198-efda-4823-b236-d4a208b44feb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Zysling, Park, McMillan, & Place, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Zysling et al (2012))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Zysling, Park, McMillan, & Place, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Zysling, Park, McMillan, & Place, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Zysling et al., 2012) (Gambar 8.). Bahwa kondisi fotoperiode atau lamanya hari pada saat kelahiran dan selama proses perkembangan memiliki pengaruh yang sangat kuat terutama pada waktu pubertas. Betina yang lahir pada durasi cahaya pendek menyebabkan terhambatnya perkembangan reproduksi.
-2114552228850Gambar 8. Struktur Ovarium (H;E) Setelah Mengalami Perlakuan Fotoperiode Pendek
00Gambar 8. Struktur Ovarium (H;E) Setelah Mengalami Perlakuan Fotoperiode Pendek

Penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/S0031-9384(02)00943-5”, “ISBN” : “0742-3098 (Print)\r0742-3098 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “00319384”, “PMID” : “12536009”, “abstract” : “To examine whether photoperiod and food availability interact to influence reproductive development (Experiment 1), we exposed juvenile male and female rice rats to 16L:8D or 14L:10D and to ad lib, 80% of ad lib, or 60% of ad lib food intake from 3 to 8 weeks of age and recorded body and reproductive organ masses. Absolute paired testis masses were similar in ad lib and 80% of ad lib groups but significantly different than the 60% of ad lib group in both photoperiods. Relative paired testis masses were significantly different in the 80% and 60% of ad lib groups on 16L:8D only. Absolute seminal vesicle masses (SVM) were directly dependent upon the level of food restriction in both photoperiods, but relative SVMs were different only in the 60% of ad lib group. Terminal body masses were also directly dependent upon the level of food restriction and were greater on 16L:8D than on 14L:10D at most levels of food availability. In juvenile females, absolute uterine mass was only affected in the 60% of ad lib group on 14L:10D, while absolute paired ovary masses were affected on both photoperiods in the 60% of ad lib groups only. There was no effect of photoperiod or food on relative uterine and paired ovary masses. Terminal body mass was affected by food intake in both photoperiods. Lastly, in adult males (Experiment 2), photoperiod and food restriction affected reproductive function. Within a photoperiod, there was no effect of food restriction (75% of ad lib) on the testes, seminal vesicles, or testosterone levels in animals housed on 16L:8D, but terminal body mass was significantly reduced. On 12L:12D, however, food restriction significantly decreased testes and SVMs relative to ad lib-fed controls. Testosterone levels were reduced regardless of food availability. There was no effect of food restriction on terminal body mass. These results suggest that multiple potential environmental cues can be utilized to affect gonadal status in both juvenile and adult marsh rice rats. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Edmonds”, “given” : “Kent E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Riggs”, “given” : “Leah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stetson”, “given” : “Milton H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Physiology and Behavior”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2003” }, “page” : “41-49”, “title” : “Food availability and photoperiod affect reproductive development and maintenance in the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris)”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “78” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=db52b6b7-1e6f-45d4-926d-a638905de923” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Edmonds, Riggs, & Stetson, 2003)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Edmonds et al (2003))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Edmonds, Riggs, & Stetson, 2003)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Edmonds, Riggs, & Stetson, 2003)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Edmonds et al., (2003) menunjukkan bahwa beberapa petunjuk lingkungan potensial dapat digunakan untuk mempengarui status gonad pada tikus Oryzomys palustris remaja dan dewasa yang berpengaruh terhadap masa testis, masa terminal tubuh, masa ovarium, masa uterus dan fungsi koordinasi reproduksi pada hari pendek dan panjang. Pada tahun 1991, ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1095/biolreprod44.6.1189”, “ISBN” : “0006-3363 (Print)”, “ISSN” : “0006-3363”, “PMID” : “1873393”, “abstract” : “Wild populations of Peromyscus are often composed of individuals that vary greatly in their reproductive response to photoperiod. A population of white-footed mice (P. leucopus) from Michigan (43 degrees N) was subjected to mass selection in the laboratory both for and against reproductive photoresponsiveness for four generations. The first generation of selection yielded one line of mice in which about 80% of the individuals were classified as reproductively photoresponsive (i.e., with undeveloped reproductive tracts when reared in short days, 8L: 16D) and another in which only about 20% were reproductively photoresponsive. Some and perhaps most of this difference was accounted for by changes in degree of responsiveness to photoperiod rather than by alterations in the proportion of discrete responsive vs. unresponsive phenotypes. Alteration of critical day length was not a factor. Three more generations of selection failed to change the proportions noted above significantly. Although the genetic control of reproductive photoresponsiveness is undoubtedly complex, a single variable locus may be responsible for much of the heritable variation present in this population. These results also suggest that natural populations contain genetically determined phenotypes that are intermediate between absolutely photoresponsive and absolutely unresponsive. The factors that might promote maintenance of heterogeneity of reproductive photoresponsiveness in a wild population of rodents are considered.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Heideman”, “given” : “P D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bronson”, “given” : “F H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biology of reproduction”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1991” }, “page” : “1189-1196”, “title” : “Characteristics of a genetic polymorphism for reproductive photoresponsiveness in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “44” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3ab9af50-5efe-4c87-be83-175bca3e0b8b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(P D Heideman & Bronson, 1991)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Heideman and Bronson, 1991)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(P D Heideman & Bronson, 1991)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(P D Heideman & Bronson, 1991)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Heideman dan Bronson, 1991) menunjukkan bahwa generasi pertama dari Peromyscus leucopus memiliki respons terhadap cahaya dalam reproduksi sekitar 80% individu dan generasi kedua dan ketiga menurun menjadi 20%. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan polimorfisme pada tikus tersebut dan akan diturunkan terus menerus keturunannya di generasi berikutnya.
ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1093/icb/icp014”, “ISBN” : “1557-7023 (Electronic)\r1540-7063 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “1557-7023”, “PMID” : “21665840”, “abstract” : “A key question in the evolution of life history and in evolutionary physiology asks how reproductive and other life-history traits evolve. Genetic variation in reproductive control systems may exist in many elements of the complex inputs that can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) or reproductive axis. Such variation could include numbers and other traits of secretory cells, the amount and pattern of chemical message released, transport and clearance mechanisms, and the number and other traits of receptor cells. Selection lines created from a natural population of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) that contains substantial genetic variation in reproductive inhibition in response to short winter daylength (SD) have been used to examine neuroendocrine variation in reproductive timing. We hypothesized that natural genetic variation would be most likely to occur in the inputs to GnRH neurons and/or in GnRH neurons themselves, but not in elements of the photoperiodic pathway that would have pleiotropic effects on nonreproductive functions as well as on reproductive functions. Significant genetic variation has been found in the GnRH neuronal system. The number of GnRH neurons immunoreactive to an antibody to mature GnRH peptide under conditions maximizing detection of stained neurons was significantly heritable in an unselected control (C) line. Furthermore, a selection line that suppresses reproduction in SD (photoperiod responsive, R) had fewer IR-GnRH neurons than a selection line that maintains reproduction in SD (photoperiod nonresponsive, NR). This supports the hypothesis that genetic variation in characteristics of GnRH neurons themselves may be responsible for the observed phenotypic variation in reproduction in SD. The R and NR lines differ genetically in food intake and iodo-melatonin receptor binding, as well as in other characteristics. The latter findings are consistent with the hypothesis that genetic variation occurs in the nutritional and hormonal inputs to GnRH neurons. Genetic variation also exists in the phenotypic plasticity of responses to two combinations of treatments, (1) food and photoperiod, and (2) photoperiod and age, indicating genetic variation in individual norms of reaction within this population. Overall, the apparent multiple sources of genetic variation within this population suggest that there may be multiple alternative combinations of alleles for both the R and NR phenotypes. If that interpretation is cu2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Heideman”, “given” : “Paul D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pittman”, “given” : “Julian T”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Integrative and comparative biology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “550-562”, “title” : “Microevolution of neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating reproductive timing in Peromyscus leucopus.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “49” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9cb9656d-540e-4b72-a010-a8a17f5ca10b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Paul D Heideman & Pittman, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Heideman and Pittman, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Paul D Heideman & Pittman, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Paul D Heideman & Pittman, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Heideman dan Pittman, 2009) menunjukkan bahwa fotoperiode pada zona pendek dan panjang berperan penting dalam mikroevolusi neuroendokrin yang berperan dalam regulasi sistem reproduksi. Sehingga akan menyebabkan perubahan fisiologis yang menyebabkan keanekaragaman genetik dalam satu spesies. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa fungsi gonad dari Cleithriomys glareolus betina bergantung pada fotoperiode. Durasi tersebut meliputi periode antara hari panjang dan hari pendek. Akibatnya sel granulosa dari folikel ovarium mengalami perkembangan yang signifikan dimasing-masing perlakuan, jadi disimpulkan bahwa fotoperiodisme secara in vivo mempengaruhi sel ovarium secara in vitro ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Cellular distribution patterns of the androgen receptor in ovaries of female bank voles, born and reared in long (18:6; LD) or short (6:18; SD) photoperiods, have been studied to understand effects of androgens in female gonads. The photoperiod is one of the most important factors in bank voles, which are seasonal breeders, that regulates both morphology and hormonal function of the ovary. Androgen receptors were visualized immunocytochemically, using a specific monoclonal antibody against androgen receptor protein. LD ovaries contained more follicles and showed a different androgen receptor distribution pattern than SID ovaries. In LD ovaries, androgen receptors were strongly expressed in granulosa cells of primordial, primary, and preantral follicles as well as in theca and stromal cells. Positivity was moderate and limited to antral and cumulus regions in large follicles of LD ovaries. In contrast, androgen receptor immunopositivity was intense in the granulosa layer, theca and interstitial cells of large follicles of SD ovaries. A novel observation was the very intense immunostaining of oocyte cytoplasm in primordial and primary unilaminar follicles of LD ovaries. It can be concluded that the androgen receptor is involved in the maturation of oocytes.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Galas”, “given” : “J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Slomczynska”, “given” : “M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pierscinski”, “given” : “A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Acta Histochemica”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2003” }, “page” : “175-181”, “title” : “Effect of Photoperiod on the Distribution Patterns of Androgen Receptors and Steroid Hormone Concentrations in Ovaries of Bank Voles”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “105” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c2824615-3362-410a-87c5-e51bce3cecb9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Galas, Slomczynska, & Pierscinski, 2003)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Galas et al (2003))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Galas, Slomczynska, & Pierscinski, 2003)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Galas, Slomczynska, & Pierscinski, 2003)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Galas et al., 2003). Pada tahun 2005, ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.cbpb.2004.12.005”, “ISSN” : “1095-6433”, “PMID” : “15748858”, “abstract” : “Gonadal function of the bank vole females depends on the photoperiod. This experiment was to show whether photoperiod applied on the whole animal in vivo would affect the function of ovarian cells in vitro. Granulosa cells from large ovarian follicles of bank vole reared in long or short photoperiod were cultured as monolayers in control or luteinizing hormone supplemented media. Formation of cell colonies, activity of delta5, 3beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and progesterone secretion were investigated. First colonies of long day cells were formed already on day 1. On day 2 they enlarged and became abundant. Short day cells formed colonies only on day 2. Colonies of similar size to 2 day colonies of long day cells appeared only on day 6. There were also differences in steroid dehydrogenase activity and in progesterone secretion between long and short day control and hormone treated cultures. We conclude that photoperiod applied in vivo affects ovarian cell function in vitro.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Galas”, “given” : “J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Clarke”, “given” : “J R”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Soltys”, “given” : “Z”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stoklosowa”, “given” : “S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “page” : “187-194”, “title” : “Effect of photoperiod on cultured granulosa cells of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “140” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c66c6a73-6189-495e-9efa-cd2a48d5fded” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Galas, Clarke, Soltys, & Stoklosowa, 2005)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Galas et al (2005))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Galas, Clarke, Soltys, & Stoklosowa, 2005)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Galas, Clarke, Soltys, & Stoklosowa, 2005)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Galas et al., (2005) melanjutkan penelitiannya dan membuktikan kesimpulan yang dia buat di tahun sebelumnya. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa fotoperiode merupakan salah satu faktor terpenting dalam reproduksi, baik secara morfologi, anatomi hingga fisiologis reproduksi. Penyebab sel granulosa terpengaruh di penelitian sebelumya adalah teraktifkannya hormon androgen pada reseptor sel granulosa dan sel theca yang berpengaruh dalam pembentukan region humulus dan ukuran sel folikel antral dalam fase perkembangan folikel, hormon ini aktif akibat dirangsang oleh LH di awal fase perkembangannya. Reseptor ini sangat intens pada lapisan granulosa, sel theca dan intersisial folikel ovarium.
Mengenai pentingnya fotoperiode ini dilanjutkan oleh ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Most species living outside the tropical zone undergo physiological adaptations to seasonal environmental changes and changing day length (photoperiod); this phenomenon is called photoperiodism. It is well known that the circadian clock is involved in the regulation of photoperiodism such as seasonal reproduction, but the mechanism underlying circadian clock regulation of photoperiodism remains unclear. Recent molecular analysis have revealed that, in mammals and birds, the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland acts as the relay point from light receptors, which receive information about the photoperiod, to the endocrine responses. Long-day (LD)-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the PT acts as a master regulator of seasonal reproduction in the ependymal cells (ECs) within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and activates thyroid hormone (TH) by inducing the expression of type 2 deiodinase in both LD and short-day (SD) breeding animals. Furthermore, the circadian clock has been found to be localized in the PT and ECs as well as in the circadian pacemaker(s). This review purposes to summarize the current knowledge concerning the involvement of the neuroendocrine system and circadian clock in seasonal reproduction”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yoshimura”, “given” : “Keisuke Ikegami and Takashi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “J. Reprod. Dev”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “327u2013333”, “title” : “Seasonal Time Measurement During Reproduction”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “59” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=942c4ac0-e179-421f-9829-fc4cb789acdd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Yoshimura and Ikegami, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshimura, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Yoshimura dan Ikegami, (2013) bahwa fotoperiode merupakan titik relay paling penting dalam regulasi fotoresepsi hingga perubahan fisiologis pada burung dan mamalia. Peristiwa ini dikenal sebagai fisiologis periodik, sehingga menyebabkan perubahan secara anatomi pada reptil dan amphibi, namun tidak pada ikan, mekanisme pembentukannya sendiri secara bertahap telah dipahami, namun mekanisme ritmik durasi penerangan terhadap fisiologis reproduksi sampai saat ini masih belum dapat dipahami dan banyak menimbulkan keraguan, hal yang paling mendasar adalah kehadiran periode kritis yang hingga saat ini masih belum diketahui, sedangkan periode antara hari panjang dan pendek pun masih belum jelas, maka disarankan untuk penelitian lanjutan mengenai efek fotoperiode terhadap fisiologis reproduksi untuk memasuki hal tersebut. Penelitian terbaru pun masih belum menjelaskan mengenai kehadiran periode kritis ini, namun pada periode antara telah diketahui seperti penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.jneumeth.2017.04.007”, “ISSN” : “01650270”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Peirson”, “given” : “Stuart N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brown”, “given” : “Laurence A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pothecary”, “given” : “Carina A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Benson”, “given” : “Lindsay A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fisk”, “given” : “Angus S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Neuroscience Methods”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “Light and the laboratory mouse”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c8606ba4-33cc-4f4a-83bd-12fa65a8c895” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Peirson et al., 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Peirson et al (2017))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Peirson et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Peirson et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Peirson et al., (2017) dimana cahaya berperan penting dalam regulasi fisiologis tubuh. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan terbentuknya strain pada mencit dan efek lainnya.
METODOLOGI PENELITIAN
Waktu dan Tempat
Penelitian ini akan dilakuan pada bulan Agustus sampai Desember 2017 (Lampiran 1.) di Laboratorium Bioteknologi dan Rekayasa Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, Universitas Jambi dan kandang percobaan Program Studi Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, Universitas Jambi.
Alat dan Bahan
Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah oven, neraca analitik berat badan, kandang ukuran (25 x 15 x 40) cm, gelas objek, gelas penutup, cotton bud, gelas kimia, switch timer, kabel stop kontak, kabel, pitting lampu, bohlam 15 watt, botol minum, wadah pakan, plastik, tally counter, mikroskop trinokuler, kamera, alat tulis, sarung tangan dan masker, boks pencahayaan, kayu ring, kawat kasa, termometer, pin kabel, alat konstruksi (tang, palu, siku dan diagonal space) dan kawat. Bahan yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini adalah mencit betina, pakan mencit (Lampiran 2.), abidest, Giemsa-Methilen Blue 0, 5% (GMB) (Lampiran 3.), alas breeding, kertas label, dan kain hitam tebal.
Metode Penelitian
Kondisi Kandang Percobaan
Pencahayaan modifikasi dari ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.neures.2007.06.1474”, “ISBN” : “0168-0102 (Print)”, “ISSN” : “01680102”, “PMID” : “17692419”, “abstract” : “Exposure to chronic constant light (CCL) influences circadian rhythms and evokes stress. Since hippocampus is sensitive to stress, which facilitates long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampal CA1 area, we examined whether CCL exposure influenced hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in Wistar rats. Here we report that CCL exposure (3 weeks) disrupted 24-h cycle of locomotion activity in open field test. These rats showed shorter escape latency during initial phase of spatial learning but impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory without affecting the visual platform learning task in Morris water maze (MWM) compared with control rats. This effect may be due to stress adaptation as reflected by reduced thigmotaxis and anxiety-like behaviors in CCL rats. Moreover, in CA1 area of the hippocampal slices, CCL rats failed to show LTD by low frequency stimulation (LFS, 900 pulses, 1 Hz), while showed decreased short-term depression compared with control rats indicating the induction of LTD was influenced by CCL exposure. Furthermore, additional acute stress enabled LFS to induce LTD in control rats but not in CCL rats. Thus, these results suggested that CCL exposure impaired spatial memory and influenced hippocampal LTD, which may be due to stress adaptation. u00a9 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ma”, “given” : “Wen Pei”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cao”, “given” : “Jun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tian”, “given” : “Meng”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cui”, “given” : “Ming Hu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Han”, “given” : “Hui Li”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yang”, “given” : “Yue Xiong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Xu”, “given” : “Lin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Neuroscience Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “224-230”, “title” : “Exposure to chronic constant light impairs spatial memory and influences long-term depression in rats”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “59” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2213e630-095d-4998-9dd7-8559cb2469a3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ma et al., 2007)”, “manualFormatting” : “Ma et al (2007))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ma et al., 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ma et al., 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Ma et al., (2007) dan standar baku penelitian posisi lampu berada pada ketinggian ±75 cm dari lantai kandang, Selanjutnya lux diukur dengan menggunakan lux meter, hingga lux menjadi 100 – 110 lux. Lampu yang digunakan adalah 6 bohlam 15 watt ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “SNI”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Sni 03-6197-2010”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “title” : “Konservasi Energi pada Sistem Pencahayaan”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f32dad2d-32c9-4ea4-aac6-aba9fdfd66a2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(SNI, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “(SNI, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(SNI, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(SNI, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(SNI, 2010) diletakkan pada sudut atas kandang dengan sudut 45O secara berlawanan dan berangkai seri sehingga lumens menjadi 93 lumens/watt, dengan titik bias cahaya berjumlah 4, 3 titik, sehingga kondisi cahaya benar-benar terang dan mewakili penyinaran dari matahari dan polusi cahaya dilangit malam. Untuk kondisi gelap, maka kandang dicat hitam, hingga kondisi kandang benar-benar gelap. Alas yang digunakan adalah serabut kayu dan zeolit yang telah disterilkan dengan oven ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781860945656”, “ISSN” : “9781860945656”, “PMID” : “1000164186”, “abstract” : “Lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type usually arises in MALT acquired through chronic antigenic stimulation triggered by persistent infection and/or autoimmune processes. Due to specific ligand-receptor interactions between lymphoid cells and high-endothelial venules of MALT, both normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells display a pronounced homing tendency to MALT throughout the body. In the case of neoplastic disease these homing properties may be responsible for lymphoma dissemination among various MALT-sites. According to this concept, we have standardized staging procedures in all patients diagnosed with MALT-type lymphoma. All patients with MALT-type lymphoma underwent standardized staging procedures before treatment. Staging included ophthalmologic examination, otolaryngologic investigation, gastroscopy with multiple biopsies, endosonography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, enteroclysis, colonoscopy, computed tomography of thorax and abdomen and bone marrow biopsy. Biopsy was performed in all lesions suggestive for lymphomatous involvement, and evaluation of all biopsy specimens was performed by a reference pathologist. 35 consecutive patients with histologically verified MALT-type lymphoma were admitted to our department. Twenty-four patients (68%) had primary involvement of the stomach, five (15%) had lymphoma of the ocular adnexa, three (8.5%) had lymphoma of the parotid, and three (8,5%) of the lung. Lymph-node involvement corresponding to stage EII disease was found in 13 patients (37%), only one patient with primary gastric lymphoma had local and supradiaphragmatic lymph-node involvement (stage EIII). Bone marrow biopsies were negative in all patients. Overall, eight of 35 patients (23%) had simultaneous biopsy-proven involvement of two MALT-sites: one patient each had lymphoma of parotid and lacrimal gland, conjunctiva and hypopharynx, conjunctiva and skin, lacrimal gland and lung, stomach and colon, and stomach and lung. The remaining two patients had bilateral parotideal lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for lymph-node involvement in all of these eight patients. The importance of extensive staging in MALT-type lymphoma is emphasized by the demonstration of multiorgan involvement in almost a quarter of patients. In addition, our data suggest that extra-gastrointestinal MALT-type lymphoma more frequently occurs simultaneously at different anatomic sites than MALT-type lymphoma involving the GI-tract.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Peter”, “given” : “W.L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Jackson Laboratory”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “29”, “publisher” : “The Jackson Laboratory”, “title” : “Breeding Strategies for Maintaining Colonies of Laboratory Mice”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “83” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fc92dd50-ab37-403d-b2f5-ae0be51bbff6” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh jenis alas yang berbeda dengan dan tanpa sekat alas terhadap performa mencit jantan umur 28-63 hari serta mengetahui informasi kadar amoniak pada alas kandang yang berbeda. Peubah yang diamati yaitu konsumsi BK pakan, air minum, BB awal dan akhir, PBB, konversi pakan, mortalitas dan kadar amoniak dalam kandang. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah RAL dalam percobaan Faktorial 3 x 2, faktor pertama yaitu jenis alas (sekam, pasir dan zeolit) dan faktor kedua adalah penyekatan alas (tanpa penyekatan dan bersekat). Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan ANOVA, apabila terdapat hasil yang nyata, dilanjutkan dengan uji banding Tukey. Data yang tidak memenuhi asumsi parametrik, dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji statistik Kruskal-Wallis, sedangkan kadar amoniak dalam kandang dijelaskan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis alas yang berbeda berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01) pada konsumsi pakan dan nyata (P<0,05) pada BB akhir mencit. Mencit yang dipelihara pada alas S memiliki konsumsi pakan dan BB akhir yang lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan jenis alas P dan Z. Sedangkan DS berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01) pada konsumsi pakan dan nyata (P<0,05) pada konsumsi air minum. Mencit yang dipelihara pada kandang TS memiliki konsumsi pakan yang lebih tinggi dan konsumsi minum yang rendah bila dibandingkan dengan kandang DS. Interaksi terjadi antara jenis alas dan penyekatan alas terlihat pada PBB dan konversi pakan minggu pertama hingga ketiga. Mencit pada kandang DSS dan DSP serta kandang TSZ memiliki konversi pakan dan PBB yang lebih baik bila dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Kandang dengan alas S memiliki kadar amoniak yang tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan alas P dan Z. Kadar amoniak pada alas Z merupakan kadar yang terendah. Hasil perlakuan terbaik yang dapat dipilih dalam membudidayakan mencit adalah kandang dengan alas zeolit baik bersekat maupun tida”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rakhmadi”, “given” : “I”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Siagian”, “given” : “H C H Siregar P H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Jurnal Zeolit Indonesia”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “53-65”, “title” : “Alas Kandang Sekam , Pasir Dan Zeolit Dengan Dan Tanpa Sekat Alas”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3e174fd2-51bd-4d1a-9161-e6dd134e976b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Peter, 2007; Rakhmadi & Siagian, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Rakhmadi dan Siagian, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Peter, 2007; Rakhmadi & Siagian, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Peter, 2007; Rakhmadi & Siagian, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rakhmadi dan Siagian, 2009). Kandang dibersikan sebanyak 1 kali per minggu dan pemberian pakan dilakukan secara ad libitum. Desain kandang seperti pada (Lampiran 4.). Suhu kandang diukur dengan termometer udara, dan kelembaban udara diukur dengan higrometer ruang.
Perlakuan
Sampel yang digunakan adalah mencit betina galur SW (Swiss-Webster) tipe MPF (Murine Free Pathogen) yang didapat dari Balai Laboratorium Kesehatan Hewan dan Kesmavet Provinsi Jambi dan Palembang Laboratory Center (PLC), Jakabering, Sumatera Selatan, dengan berat badan 20 gram dan umur 23 hariADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/0471142301.nsa04is48.Assessing”, “ISBN” : “0471142301”, “ISSN” : “0471142301”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Caligioni”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NIH Public Access : Curr Protoc Neurosci”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “8”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “1-11”, “title” : “Assessing Reproductive Status/Stages in Mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f7fe6681-8b50-4586-be5f-2bb719fb13bf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : ” (Caligioni, 2010;”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” } (Caligioni, 2010 dan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “An important task facing both researchers and animal core facilities is producing sufficient mice for a given project. The inherent biologic variability of mouse reproduction and litter size further challenges effective research planning. A lack of precision in project planning contributes to the high cost of animal research, overproduction (thus waste) of animals, and inappropriate allocation of facility resources. To examine the extent daily prepartum maternal weight gain predicts litter size in 2 commonly used mouse strains (BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J) and one mouse stock (Swiss Webster), we weighed u2265 25 pregnant dams of each strain or stock daily from the morning on which a vaginal plug (day 0) was present. On the morning when dams delivered their pups, we recorded the weight of the dam, the weight of the litter itself, and the number of pups. Litter sizes ranged from 1 to 7 pups for BALB/cJ, 2 to 13 for Swiss Webster, and 5 to 11 for C57BL/6J mice. Linear regression models (based on weight change from day 0) demonstrated that maternal weight gain at day 9 (BALB/cJ), day 11 (Swiss Webster), or day 14 (C57BL/6J) was a significant predictor of litter size. When tested prospectively, the linear regression model for each strain or stock was found to be accurate. These data indicate that the number of pups that will be born can be estimated accurately by using maternal weight gain at specific or stock-specific time points.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Finlay”, “given” : “James B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liu”, “given” : “Xueli”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ermel”, “given” : “Richard W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adamson”, “given” : “Trinka W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “694 – 699”, “title” : “Maternal Weight Gain as a Predictor of Litter Size in Swiss Webster , C57BL / 6J , and BALB / cJ mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “54” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e415ad58-b4d1-41d2-8e9b-149a28664e47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Finlay, Liu, Ermel, & Adamson, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “Finlay et al (2015))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Finlay, Liu, Ermel, & Adamson, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Finlay, Liu, Ermel, & Adamson, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Finlay et al., 2015). Kemudian sampel tersebut dilakukan aklimatisasi selama 1 minggu. Selama proses aklimatisasi ini dilakukan penimbangan berat badan. Sampel tersebut dilakukan selama 2 bulan. Penimbangan berat badan dan pengamatan siklus estrus dilakukan selama periode penelitian. Perlakuan yang diberikan pada penelitian ini terdiri atas 5 perlakuan seperti pada (Gambar 9.):
30226001266190Kandang B
00Kandang B
3003550142240Kandang A
00Kandang A
2574925271399000257492514947900025654003803650025654003803650030226002475865Kandang C
00Kandang C

2842526224583
360045984250 T : 24 G (P1)
6 T : 18 G (P2)
12 T : 12 G (P3)(Kontrol)
18 T : 6 G (P4)
24 T : 0 G (P5)
000 T : 24 G (P1)
6 T : 18 G (P2)
12 T : 12 G (P3)(Kontrol)
18 T : 6 G (P4)
24 T : 0 G (P5)
34270951193803 ekor
003 ekor
339852025006305 ekor
005 ekor

214630092075002842526342605
34080452203455 ekor
005 ekor

288925230505Ket:
T: Terang
G: Gelap
00Ket:
T: Terang
G: Gelap

2846336152001
-11430340360Gambar 9. Skema Desain Perlakuan dan Sampel
00Gambar 9. Skema Desain Perlakuan dan Sampel

Peubah yang diamati
Peubah yang diamati dalam penelitian ini meliputi pengamatan siklus estrus dan penimbangan berat badan harian (bbh). Pengamatan Siklus estrus dilakukan setiap hari mulai pukul 04. 00 WIB – 10. 00 WIB selama periode penelitian pada setiap perlakuan (Lampiran 5.). Penimbangan berat badan harian dilakukan selama masa aklimatisasi hingga akhir penelitian. Pada siklus estrus yang diamati adalah lama siklus estrus dan sitologi vagina.

Rancangan Penelitian dan Analisis Data
Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan satu variable tunggal yaitu cahaya. Semua data yang didapat diolah dengan menggunakan Analisis Variansi (ANAVA) faktor tunggal. Jika berbeda nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji DMRT.
27622540640PERSIAPAN ALAT and BAHAN
00PERSIAPAN ALAT and BAHAN
133603940005000
82118196118860001684655196850PENGAMATAN SIKLUS ESTRUS
00PENGAMATAN SIKLUS ESTRUS
1491614953135001247775848360001491615848360002564764495300062865218440PENIMBANGAN BERAT BADAN
00PENIMBANGAN BERAT BADAN
3352796032500335280596900025647642546350033527926543000
99060092710PENGAMATAN
00PENGAMATAN

116776557912000108839021526500
35560110490SE (Setiap Hari)
BB (Setiap Hari)
00SE (Setiap Hari)
BB (Setiap Hari)

2908935149225ANAVA
00ANAVA

38201604533900038080958636000192405013779500
31908752089150086296566675ANALISIS DATA
00ANALISIS DATA

166433544132500383730544640500417830048260002899410173355DMRT
00DMRT
896620100266500117602053721000
381508014859000
5264152216150052641422161500
2247265217170BB
00BB
2448559114300018415169545Siklus Estrus
(SE)
00Siklus Estrus
(SE)

362712079375MS. EXCEL 2010
00MS. EXCEL 2010

409130529083000
33401024257000
344614517780IBM SPSS STATISTIC 23
00IBM SPSS STATISTIC 23

1566545184150Jumlah dan Panjang Siklus Estrus (Hari)
00Jumlah dan Panjang Siklus Estrus (Hari)
18415184150Morfologi Sel Ulas Vagina dan Determinasi Siklus Estrus
00Morfologi Sel Ulas Vagina dan Determinasi Siklus Estrus
218503413335001168403810001168391333500
118872024003000
565150107315INTERPRETASI HASIL
00INTERPRETASI HASIL

Gambar 10. Diagram Alir Penelitian
IV. HASIL dan PEMBAHASAN
4. 1. Pengaruh Fotoperiode Terhadap Siklus Estrus
4. 1. 1. Morfologi dan determinasi siklus.
Siklus estrus terdiri dari 4 fase secara umum yang terdiri dari fase proestrus, estrus, metestrus dan diestrus (Tabel 1.). Cara untuk mendeterminasi siklus estrus ini, salah satunya adalah metode ulas vagina (ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/0471142301.nsa04is48.Assessing”, “ISBN” : “0471142301”, “ISSN” : “0471142301”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Caligioni”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NIH Public Access : Curr Protoc Neurosci”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “8”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “1-11”, “title” : “Assessing Reproductive Status/Stages in Mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f7fe6681-8b50-4586-be5f-2bb719fb13bf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010)”, “manualFormatting” : “Caligioni, (2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 32 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Caligioni, 2010 danADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “An important task facing both researchers and animal core facilities is producing sufficient mice for a given project. The inherent biologic variability of mouse reproduction and litter size further challenges effective research planning. A lack of precision in project planning contributes to the high cost of animal research, overproduction (thus waste) of animals, and inappropriate allocation of facility resources. To examine the extent daily prepartum maternal weight gain predicts litter size in 2 commonly used mouse strains (BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J) and one mouse stock (Swiss Webster), we weighed u2265 25 pregnant dams of each strain or stock daily from the morning on which a vaginal plug (day 0) was present. On the morning when dams delivered their pups, we recorded the weight of the dam, the weight of the litter itself, and the number of pups. Litter sizes ranged from 1 to 7 pups for BALB/cJ, 2 to 13 for Swiss Webster, and 5 to 11 for C57BL/6J mice. Linear regression models (based on weight change from day 0) demonstrated that maternal weight gain at day 9 (BALB/cJ), day 11 (Swiss Webster), or day 14 (C57BL/6J) was a significant predictor of litter size. When tested prospectively, the linear regression model for each strain or stock was found to be accurate. These data indicate that the number of pups that will be born can be estimated accurately by using maternal weight gain at specific or stock-specific time points.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Finlay”, “given” : “James B”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Liu”, “given” : “Xueli”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ermel”, “given” : “Richard W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adamson”, “given” : “Trinka W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “694 – 699”, “title” : “Maternal Weight Gain as a Predictor of Litter Size in Swiss Webster , C57BL / 6J , and BALB / cJ mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “54” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e415ad58-b4d1-41d2-8e9b-149a28664e47” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Finlay, Liu, Ermel, & Adamson, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : ” Finlay et al (2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Finlay, Liu, Ermel, & Adamson, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Finlay, Liu, Ermel, & Adamson, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 32 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” } Finlay et al., 2015). Determinasi siklus estrus didasarkan pada morfologi sel, meliputi sel eptitelium berinti, sel kornifikasi dan sel neutrofil.
Tabel 1. Interpretasi Siklus Estrus
Fase Interpretasi Hasil Citra Mikroskop
Proestrus Sel Epitelium Berinti dan Sel Kornifikasi -11430142875
Estrus Sel Kornifikasi -190582550
Metestrus Sel Kornifikasi dan Sel Neutrofil
Diestrus Sel Epitelium Berinti, Sel Kornifikasi, dan Sel Neutrofil
Anestrus REN atau Epitelium Bulat Berinti
Keterangan. Panah Hitam (Sel Epitelium Berinti), Panah Biru (Sel Kornifikasi), Panah Merah (Sel Neutrofil) dan Panah Ungu (Sel REN atau Sel Epitelium Bulat Berinti), dan Panah Kuning (Asam Uranik). Pembesaran 100x (Dok. Pribadi, 2017).
Sel epitelium berinti (panah hitam) memiliki ciri-ciri morfologi berbentuk ireguler dengan nukleus berada ditengah sel, sel ini sering dijumpai pada fase proestrus dan diestrus. Selanjutnya adalah sel kornifikasi (panah biru) adalah sel epitelium berinti yang telah kehilangan inti selnya saat infiltrasi sel epitelium di vagina. Sel ini ditemukan pada fase estrus, metestrus dan diestrus.
Kemudian neutrofil (panah merah), bentuk morfologi sel neutrofil adalah berbentuk bulat, kecil dengan inti bergranula, bersegmen dan seperti tapal kuda yang berada didalam sel. Sel ini ditemukan pada fase metestrus dan diestrus. Migrasi neutrofil ini terjadi akibat beberapa rangsangan fisiologis tubuh ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.02.112”, “ISSN” : “0006291X”, “PMID” : “19249292”, “abstract” : “During metestrus of the estrous cycle, a number of neutrophils infiltrate into the vaginal vault, presumably due to a neutrophil-specific chemokine, MIP-2, in mice. The physiological role of the infiltrating neutrophils, however, remains largely obscure. In this study we examined the effects of neutrophil depletion on the estrous cycle and steroid hormone levels. When mice were treated with an anti-Gr-1 mAb, they became neutropenic, as assessed as to the number of neutrophils in the peripheral blood. The estrous cycle of such mice was specifically blocked at diestrus irrespective of the phase at which the anti-Gr-1 mAb was administered. The blockade was reversible, because restoration of neutrophils to a normal level caused a restart of the cycle. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that neutrophils were present mainly on the luminal surface and in the lumen at metestrus and to a lesser extent at diestrus but scarcely in the uterine cervix at any phase, and that the anti-Gr-1 mAb depleted neutrophils but not eosinophils in the vagina. The treatment with the anti-Gr-1 mAb significantly affected the serum 17u03b2-estradiol and progesterone levels at diestrus after the estrous cycle was blocked. Together, these results suggest that neutrophil infiltration into the vagina is critical in maintaining the estrous cycle through control of steroid hormone levels. u00a9 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sasaki”, “given” : “Soichiro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nagata”, “given” : “Kisaburo”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kobayashi”, “given” : “Yoshiro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “35-40”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Inc.”, “title” : “Regulation of the estrous cycle by neutrophil infiltration into the vagina”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “382” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8938417a-cc63-4ecd-aa8c-a6408c2929e3” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4049/jimmunol.1002489”, “ISSN” : “0022-1767”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sasaki”, “given” : “S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tamaki”, “given” : “Y.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nagata”, “given” : “K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kobayashi”, “given” : “Y.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Journal of Immunology”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2011” }, “page” : “774-780”, “title” : “Regulation of the Estrous Cycle by Neutrophils via Opioid Peptides”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “187” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c97f1830-d9cd-4868-8085-b877e0acbb8b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(S. Sasaki, Tamaki, Nagata, & Kobayashi, 2011; Soichiro Sasaki, Nagata, & Kobayashi, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(S. Sasaki et al (2011);(2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(S. Sasaki, Tamaki, Nagata, & Kobayashi, 2011; Soichiro Sasaki, Nagata, & Kobayashi, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(S. Sasaki, Tamaki, Nagata, & Kobayashi, 2011; Soichiro Sasaki, Nagata, & Kobayashi, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 33 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sasaki et al., (2009) dan (2011)). Selanjutnya adalah sel epitelium bulat berinti (panah ungu), memiliki bentuk morfologi berukuran sedang menyerupai sel epitelium berinti namun berbentuk bulat, ditemukan pada fase anestrus.
Saat pengamatan morfologi, juga ditemukan asam uranik, berupa lapisan sapuan halus (panah kuning) hal ini terjadi akibat tercampurnya sel vagina dengan urin pada mencit yang mengalami siklus estrus dan anestrus. Hal yang sama juga ditemukan pada penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.049”, “ISBN” : “2211-1247 (Electronic)”, “ISSN” : “22111247”, “PMID” : “26299967”, “abstract” : “Female reproductive function changes during aging with the estrous cycle becoming more irregular during the transition to menopause. We found that intermittent shifts of the light-dark cycle disrupted regularity of estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, whose estrous cycles were regular under unperturbed 24-hr light-dark cycles. Although female mice deficient in Cry1 or Cry2, the core components of the molecular circadian clock, exhibited regular estrous cycles during youth, they showed accelerated senescence characterized by irregular and unstable estrous cycles and resultant infertility in middle age. Notably, tuning the period length of the environmental light-dark cycles closely to the endogenous one inherent in the Cry-deficient females restored the regularity of the estrous cycles and, consequently, improved fertility in middle age. These results suggest that reproductive potential can be strongly influenced by age-related changes in the circadian system and normal reproductive functioning can be rescued by the manipulation of environmental timing signals. Takasu et al. show that weekly perturbation of the light-dark cycle disrupts estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, and early infertility evident in female mice deficient in core circadian clock genes is improved by coordinating environmental and endogenous circadian rhythms. These findings suggest that an age-related decline in fertility may be rescued by control of environmental timing signals.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takasu”, “given” : “Nana N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakamura”, “given” : “Takahiro J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokuda”, “given” : “Isao T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Todo”, “given” : “Takeshi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Block”, “given” : “Gene D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakamura”, “given” : “Wataru”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Cell Reports”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “9”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1407-1413”, “publisher” : “The Authors”, “title” : “Recovery from Age-Related Infertility under Environmental Light-Dark Cycles Adjusted to the Intrinsic Circadian Period”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “12” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=89a8505b-0891-4f80-a66f-a1193a5b7378” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.005”, “ISBN” : “1087-0792”, “ISSN” : “15322955”, “PMID” : “25129839”, “abstract” : “The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sju00f6gren’s syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Knowledge of these and other 24 hpatterns of human pathophysiology informs research of their underlying circadian and other endogenous mechanisms, external temporal triggers, and more effective patient care entailing clinical chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Smolensky”, “given” : “Michael H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Portaluppi”, “given” : “Francesco”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Manfredini”, “given” : “Roberto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hermida”, “given” : “Ramon C.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tiseo”, “given” : “Ruana”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sackett-Lundeen”, “given” : “Linda L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Haus”, “given” : “Erhard L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Sleep Medicine Reviews”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “12-22”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: Acute and chronic common and uncommon medical conditions”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “21” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=497bf3a4-012b-4a0b-838b-1e64f639c5a6” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.7860/JCDR/2017/23977.9148”, “ISSN” : “0973709X”, “PMID” : “28273958”, “abstract” : “INTRODUCTION Evaluation of estrous cycle in laboratory animals can be a useful measure of the integrity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis. Assessment of vaginal cytology is crucial to assess the milieu and compare the endocrine status of animals among the experimental groups. AIM The present study was attempted to compare the estimation of estrous cycle by visual method and non invasive vaginal lavage method. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty healthy female swiss albino mice were used for the present study. The appearance of the vagina with respect to the opening of vagina, vaginal swellings were observed. Non-invasive method was used in vaginal lavage method in which nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells and leucocytes present in vaginal smears were used to identify the estrous stages. RESULTS The estimation of estrous cycle by visual method coincides with the vaginal lavage method. In Vaginal lavage method, the accurate proportion of cells and the transition phases can be evaluated. CONCLUSION The non-invasive method reduces the risk of pseudo -pregnancy and mechanical trauma. Though, visual method is quick and reliable, for accurate estimation of the stage of the estrous, non-invasive vaginal lavage method is ideal.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ekambaram”, “given” : “Gnanagurudasan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kumar”, “given” : “Senthil Kumar Sampath”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Joseph”, “given” : “Leena Dennis”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research”, “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “AC05-AC07”, “title” : “Comparative study on the estimation of estrous cycle in mice by visual and vaginal lavage method”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8023a62a-3b3f-4179-9ae2-84d53e41d8f5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ekambaram, Kumar, & Joseph, 2017; Smolensky et al., 2015; Takasu et al., 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ekambaram et al (2017); Haus et al (2015); Takasu et al (2015))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ekambaram, Kumar, & Joseph, 2017; Smolensky et al., 2015; Takasu et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ekambaram, Kumar, & Joseph, 2017; Smolensky et al., 2015; Takasu et al., 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 33 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Ekambaram et al., (2017); Haus et al., (2015) dan Takasu et al., (2015) yaitu terjadi akibat ransangan ?-17-Estradiol (E2) diwilayah urogenital mencit akibat terganggunya ritmik tubuh (sirkardian) akibat pengaruh eksternal salah satunya adalah cahaya.
4. 1. 2. Jumlah dan Panjang Siklus Estrus
Fotoperiode berpengaruh terhadap jumlah dan panjang siklus (Tabel 2.), semakin panjang durasi cahaya maka siklus semakin singkat dan semakin sering terjadi. Sebaliknya, saat durasi cahaya singkat, maka siklus semakin lama dan semakin jarang terjadi. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa fotoperiode berpengaruh nyata (P;0,05) terhadap jumlah siklus estrus rata-rata secara ANAVA (Lampiran 9.). Dengan durasi 12 jam terang : 12 jam gelap (P3 Kontrol) jumlah rata-rata siklus estrus yang terjadi sebanyak 7,07 kali dan panjang rata-rata siklus estrus selama 4,51 hari. Hal tersebut sesuai dengan penelitian sebelumnya bahwa jumlah siklus rata-rata terjadi sebanyak 6-8 kali selama satu bulan dengan panjang rata-rata siklus estrus selama 4-5 hari ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781860945656”, “ISSN” : “9781860945656”, “PMID” : “1000164186”, “abstract” : “Lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type usually arises in MALT acquired through chronic antigenic stimulation triggered by persistent infection and/or autoimmune processes. Due to specific ligand-receptor interactions between lymphoid cells and high-endothelial venules of MALT, both normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells display a pronounced homing tendency to MALT throughout the body. In the case of neoplastic disease these homing properties may be responsible for lymphoma dissemination among various MALT-sites. According to this concept, we have standardized staging procedures in all patients diagnosed with MALT-type lymphoma. All patients with MALT-type lymphoma underwent standardized staging procedures before treatment. Staging included ophthalmologic examination, otolaryngologic investigation, gastroscopy with multiple biopsies, endosonography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, enteroclysis, colonoscopy, computed tomography of thorax and abdomen and bone marrow biopsy. Biopsy was performed in all lesions suggestive for lymphomatous involvement, and evaluation of all biopsy specimens was performed by a reference pathologist. 35 consecutive patients with histologically verified MALT-type lymphoma were admitted to our department. Twenty-four patients (68%) had primary involvement of the stomach, five (15%) had lymphoma of the ocular adnexa, three (8.5%) had lymphoma of the parotid, and three (8,5%) of the lung. Lymph-node involvement corresponding to stage EII disease was found in 13 patients (37%), only one patient with primary gastric lymphoma had local and supradiaphragmatic lymph-node involvement (stage EIII). Bone marrow biopsies were negative in all patients. Overall, eight of 35 patients (23%) had simultaneous biopsy-proven involvement of two MALT-sites: one patient each had lymphoma of parotid and lacrimal gland, conjunctiva and hypopharynx, conjunctiva and skin, lacrimal gland and lung, stomach and colon, and stomach and lung. The remaining two patients had bilateral parotideal lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for lymph-node involvement in all of these eight patients. The importance of extensive staging in MALT-type lymphoma is emphasized by the demonstration of multiorgan involvement in almost a quarter of patients. In addition, our data suggest that extra-gastrointestinal MALT-type lymphoma more frequently occurs simultaneously at different anatomic sites than MALT-type lymphoma involving the GI-tract.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Peter”, “given” : “W.L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Jackson Laboratory”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “29”, “publisher” : “The Jackson Laboratory”, “title” : “Breeding Strategies for Maintaining Colonies of Laboratory Mice”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “83” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fc92dd50-ab37-403d-b2f5-ae0be51bbff6” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/S0076-6879(05)93022-X”, “ISBN” : “9780121827984”, “ISSN” : “00766879”, “PMID” : “15817305”, “abstract” : “Ever since the locus of the brain clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was first described, methods available have both enabled and encumbered our understanding of its nature at the level of the cell, the tissue, and the animal. A combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches has shown that the SCN is a complex heterogeneous neuronal network. The nucleus is composed of cells that are retinorecipient and reset by photic input; those that are reset by nonphotic inputs; slave oscillators that are rhythmic only in the presence of the retinohypothalamic tract; endogenously rhythmic cells, with diverse period, phase, and amplitude responses; and cells that do not oscillate, at least on some measures. Network aspects of SCN organization are currently being revealed, but mapping these properties onto cellular characteristics of electrical responses and patterns of gene expression are in early stages. While previous mathematical models focused on properties of uniform coupled oscillators, newer models of the SCN as a brain clock now incorporate oscillator and gated, nonoscillator elements. Copyright 2005, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Silver”, “given” : “Rae”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schwartz”, “given” : “William J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Methods in Enzymology”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “page” : “451-465”, “title” : “The suprachiasmatic nucleus is a functionally heterogeneous timekeeping organ”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “393” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b6b03c27-f0f2-4e0a-97d5-947b1c1a9f93” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muchsin”, “given” : “Rosanti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-96”, “publisher” : “UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA”, “title” : “Pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap histologi endometrium mencit (“, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2af44494-c898-463a-bfd6-340f4df5a5a4” }, { “id” : “ITEM-4”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/0471142301.nsa04is48.Assessing”, “ISBN” : “0471142301”, “ISSN” : “0471142301”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Caligioni”, “given” : “Claudia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “NIH Public Access : Curr Protoc Neurosci”, “id” : “ITEM-4”, “issue” : “8”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “page” : “1-11”, “title” : “Assessing Reproductive Status/Stages in Mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f7fe6681-8b50-4586-be5f-2bb719fb13bf” }, { “id” : “ITEM-5”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/sl0552-005-9015-4”, “abstract” : “JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] Abstract Long-term epidemiologic studies on large numbers of night and rotating shift workers have suggested an increase in the incidence of breast and colon cancer in these populations. These studies suffer from poor definition and quantification of the work schedules of the exposed subjects. Against this background, the pathophysiology of phase shift and phase adaptation is reviewed. A phase shift as experienced in night and rotating shift work involves desynchronization at the molecular level in the circadian oscillators in the central nervous tissue and in most peripheral tissues of the body. There is a change in the coordination between oscillators with transient loss of control by the master-oscillator (the Suprachiasmatic Nu? cleus, SCN) in the hypothalamus. The implications of the pathophysiology of phase shift are discussed for long-term health effects and for the design of ergonomie work schedules minimizing the adverse health effects upon the worker.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Haus”, “given” : “Erhard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Smolensky”, “given” : “Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Smolensk”, “given” : “Michael”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Source: Cancer Causes & Control Cancer Causes Control”, “id” : “ITEM-5”, “issue” : “17”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2006” }, “page” : “489489-500”, “title” : “Biological Clocks and Shift Work: Circadian Dysregulation and Potential Long-Term Biological clocks and shift work: Orcadian dysregulation and potential long-term effects”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bf50296e-8907-4139-891f-a48b3bb6eaf6” }, { “id” : “ITEM-6”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “ISSN 1666-0536”, “abstract” : “Para evaluar el uso de olores de conespecu00edficos para el control de M. musculus comensales, estudiamos el efecto del hacinamiento sobre el u00e9xito reproductivo de hembras en con- diciones de laboratorio. La tasa de preu00f1ez, el tamau00f1o de camada, el peso al nacer y la supervivencia al destete no difirieron significativamente entre hembras hacinadas y controles. El tiempo transcurrido hasta la preu00f1ez fue menor en el grupo control, mientras que el peso promedio y el nu00famero de cru00edas sobrevivientes al destete fueron mayores. Las hembras control produjeron un promedio de 1,25 cru00edas y las hacinadas 0,6. El menor peso de las cru00edas de las hembras hacinadas podru00eda afectar su supervivencia y futura reproducciu00f3n.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nora Burroni”, “given” : “Maru00eda V. Loetti and Maru00eda Busch”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Mastozoologia Neotropical en prensa”, “id” : “ITEM-6”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “115-120”, “title” : “REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN Mus musculus ( RODENTIA ) EXPOSED TO CONSPECIFIC u2019 S ODORS AND OVERCROWDING IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “21” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6d93934d-b0d6-4792-9718-61a684b73834” }, { “id” : “ITEM-7”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Suci”, “given” : “Emmy Nurul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher” : “Universitas Halu Oleo”, “title” : “Histologi Hasil Ulas Vagina dan Waktu Siklus Estrus Mencit”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=976372a5-5d8d-4e10-aa1d-aba7550045f2” }, { “id” : “ITEM-8”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.7860/JCDR/2017/23977.9148”, “ISSN” : “0973709X”, “PMID” : “28273958”, “abstract” : “INTRODUCTION Evaluation of estrous cycle in laboratory animals can be a useful measure of the integrity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis. Assessment of vaginal cytology is crucial to assess the milieu and compare the endocrine status of animals among the experimental groups. AIM The present study was attempted to compare the estimation of estrous cycle by visual method and non invasive vaginal lavage method. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty healthy female swiss albino mice were used for the present study. The appearance of the vagina with respect to the opening of vagina, vaginal swellings were observed. Non-invasive method was used in vaginal lavage method in which nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells and leucocytes present in vaginal smears were used to identify the estrous stages. RESULTS The estimation of estrous cycle by visual method coincides with the vaginal lavage method. In Vaginal lavage method, the accurate proportion of cells and the transition phases can be evaluated. CONCLUSION The non-invasive method reduces the risk of pseudo -pregnancy and mechanical trauma. Though, visual method is quick and reliable, for accurate estimation of the stage of the estrous, non-invasive vaginal lavage method is ideal.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ekambaram”, “given” : “Gnanagurudasan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kumar”, “given” : “Senthil Kumar Sampath”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Joseph”, “given” : “Leena Dennis”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research”, “id” : “ITEM-8”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “AC05-AC07”, “title” : “Comparative study on the estimation of estrous cycle in mice by visual and vaginal lavage method”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8023a62a-3b3f-4179-9ae2-84d53e41d8f5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010; Ekambaram et al., 2017; E. Haus, Smolensky, & Smolensk, 2006; Muchsin, 2009; Nora Burroni, 2014; Peter, 2007; Silver & Schwartz, 2005; Suci, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Caligioni, 2010; Ekambaram et al (2017); Haus et al (2006); Muchsin, 2009; Burroni, 2014; Peter, 2007; Silver and Schwartz, 2005; Suci, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010; Ekambaram et al., 2017; E. Haus, Smolensky, & Smolensk, 2006; Muchsin, 2009; Nora Burroni, 2014; Peter, 2007; Silver & Schwartz, 2005; Suci, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Caligioni, 2010; Ekambaram et al., 2017; E. Haus, Smolensky, & Smolensk, 2006; Muchsin, 2009; Nora Burroni, 2014; Peter, 2007; Silver & Schwartz, 2005; Suci, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 33 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Caligioni, 2010; Ekambaram et al., 2017; Haus et al., 2006; Muchsin, 2009; Burroni, 2014; Peter, 2007; Silver dan Schwartz, 2005 dan Suci, 2015). Pada saat cahaya normal (12 jam terang: 12 jam gelap) cahaya diterima oleh retina setelah itu signal cahaya diterima dan dilanjutkan ke SCN. Signal dari SCN dibutuhkan untuk menginduksi pelepasan GnRH, Kemudian menstimulasi sekresi LH dan merangsang ovulasi (Estrus). Dalam kondisi normal ovulasi terjadi selama 4- 5 hari dimana saat itu GnRH mengalami peningkatan produksi dan menginduksi kenaikan LH dan FSH dan terjadi kenaikan level estradiol dan progesteron keadaan tersebut proestrus terjadi. Kemudian GnRH dan LH mengalami lonjakan dan FSH mengalami kenaikan dan terjadi penurunan progesteron dan estradiol, saat itu estrus terjadi. Pada fase metestrus, GnRH semakin jarang disekresi sehingga FSH dan LH mengalami penurunan, sementara estradiol dan progesteron mengalami kenaikan dengan kenaikan tertinggi terjadi pada hormon progesteron. Pada akhir metestrus, FSH dan LH masih tetap menurun akibat GnRH yang semakin jarang, namun progesteron dan estrogen masih tetap mengalami kenaikan, dalam kondisi inilah fase diestrus terjadi ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3389/fendo.2013.00195”, “ISBN” : “1664-2392”, “ISSN” : “16642392”, “PMID” : “24478756”, “abstract” : “Over the past two decades, it has become clear just how much of our physiology is under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the cell-intrinsic molecular clock that ticks with a periodicity of approximately 24u2009h. The SCN prepares our digestive system for meals, our adrenal axis for the stress of waking up in the morning, and the genes expressed in our muscles when we prepare to exercise. Long before molecular studies of genes such as Clock, Bmal1, and the Per homologs were possible, it was obvious that female reproductive function was under strict circadian control at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and in the establishment and successful maintenance of pregnancy. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that the SCN plays in regulating female reproductive physiology, with a special emphasis on the advances made possible through the use of circadian mutant mice.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Miller”, “given” : “Brooke H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takahashi”, “given” : “Joseph S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Frontiers in Endocrinology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “JAN”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “1-8”, “title” : “Central circadian control of female reproductive function”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=56b4b8f1-acd9-494f-89ee-4cb2b02f5842” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Miller & Takahashi, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Miller and Takahashi, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Miller & Takahashi, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Miller & Takahashi, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 34 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Miller dan Takahashi, 2014).
Fotoperiode 24 jam terang: 0 jam gelap (P5) berbeda nyata (P;0,05) dengan perlakuan lainnya, kecuali perlakuan hari panjang, 18 jam terang: 6 jam gelap (P4). (Tabel 2.). Sejalan dengan penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.049”, “ISBN” : “2211-1247 (Electronic)”, “ISSN” : “22111247”, “PMID” : “26299967”, “abstract” : “Female reproductive function changes during aging with the estrous cycle becoming more irregular during the transition to menopause. We found that intermittent shifts of the light-dark cycle disrupted regularity of estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, whose estrous cycles were regular under unperturbed 24-hr light-dark cycles. Although female mice deficient in Cry1 or Cry2, the core components of the molecular circadian clock, exhibited regular estrous cycles during youth, they showed accelerated senescence characterized by irregular and unstable estrous cycles and resultant infertility in middle age. Notably, tuning the period length of the environmental light-dark cycles closely to the endogenous one inherent in the Cry-deficient females restored the regularity of the estrous cycles and, consequently, improved fertility in middle age. These results suggest that reproductive potential can be strongly influenced by age-related changes in the circadian system and normal reproductive functioning can be rescued by the manipulation of environmental timing signals. Takasu et al. show that weekly perturbation of the light-dark cycle disrupts estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, and early infertility evident in female mice deficient in core circadian clock genes is improved by coordinating environmental and endogenous circadian rhythms. These findings suggest that an age-related decline in fertility may be rescued by control of environmental timing signals.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takasu”, “given” : “Nana N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakamura”, “given” : “Takahiro J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokuda”, “given” : “Isao T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Todo”, “given” : “Takeshi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Block”, “given” : “Gene D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakamura”, “given” : “Wataru”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Cell Reports”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “9”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1407-1413”, “publisher” : “The Authors”, “title” : “Recovery from Age-Related Infertility under Environmental Light-Dark Cycles Adjusted to the Intrinsic Circadian Period”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “12” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=89a8505b-0891-4f80-a66f-a1193a5b7378” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Takasu et al., 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “Takasu et al (2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Takasu et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Takasu et al., 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 34 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Takasu et al., (2015) pada mencit Wild Type (Mus musculus musculus) betina diketahui bahwa fotoperiode berpengaruh signifikan terhadap jumlah siklus rata-rata mencit Wild-Type betina. Keadaan ini mengindikasikan bahwa telah terjadi ketidakteraturan siklus estrus pada mencit betina Wild-Type (Mus musculus musculus) ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1210/en.2008-1021”, “ISBN” : “1945-7170 (Electronic)”, “ISSN” : “00137227”, “PMID” : “19056819”, “abstract” : “Evidence in humans and rodents suggests that normal circadian rhythmicity is important for supporting reproductive function. A molecular clock underlies circadian rhythmicity. Impaired fertility is observed in some genetically altered mice with deficiencies in genes of the molecular clock, suggesting a critical role for these genes in reproduction. Here we systematically characterize the reproductive phenotype of females deficient in the clock gene Bmal1. Bmal1(-/-) females are infertile. They exhibit progression through the estrous cycle, although these cycles are prolonged. Normal follicular development occurs in Bmal1(-/-) females, and healthy embryos of the expected developmental stage are found in the reproductive tract of Bmal1(-/-) females 3.5 d after mating to wild-type males. However, serum progesterone levels are significantly lower in Bmal1(-/-) vs. Bmal1(+/+/-) females on d 3.5 of gestation. Low progesterone levels in Bmal1(-/-) females are accompanied by decreased expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in corpora lutea of Bmal1(-/-) vs. Bmal1(+/+/-) females. Whereas implantation of embryos is not observed in untreated or vehicle-treated Bmal1(-/-) females, exogenous administration of progesterone to Bmal1(-/-) females is able to reinstitute implantation. These data suggest that implantation failure due to impaired steroidogenesis causes infertility of Bmal1(-/-) females.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ratajczak”, “given” : “Christine K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boehle”, “given” : “Katie L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Muglia”, “given” : “Louis J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Endocrinology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “page” : “1879-1885”, “title” : “Impaired steroidogenesis and implantation failure in Bmal1 -/-mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “150” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1c5b89b2-d0ee-480e-8995-ce71df674ce1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ratajczak, Boehle, & Muglia, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ratajczak, et al (2009))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ratajczak, Boehle, & Muglia, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ratajczak, Boehle, & Muglia, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 34 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ratajczak, et al., 2009). Kemudian, ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.smrv.2012.08.003”, “ISBN” : “1532-2955 (Electronic)\r1087-0792 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “10870792”, “PMID” : “23137527”, “abstract” : “Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today’s 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species. u00a9 2012 Elsevier Ltd.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Haus”, “given” : “Erhard L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Smolensky”, “given” : “Michael H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Sleep Medicine Reviews”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “273-284”, “publisher” : “Elsevier Ltd”, “title” : “Shift work and cancer risk: Potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f7c3401a-c92c-4469-ab36-d5bb2e5a843b” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/gtc.12522”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yoshinaka”, “given” : “Kiichi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yamaguchi”, “given” : “Ai”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Matsumura”, “given” : “Ritsuko”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Node”, “given” : “Koichi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokuda”, “given” : “Isao”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akashi”, “given” : “Makoto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “gene to cell”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “876-884”, “title” : “Effect of different lightu2013dark schedules on estrous cycle in mice, and implications for mitigating the adverse impact of night work”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “22” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba3538f3-245d-4062-b743-fe001288ccff” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(E. L. Haus & Smolensky, 2013; Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “Haus and Smolensky, (2013); Yoshinaka et al (2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(E. L. Haus & Smolensky, 2013; Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(E. L. Haus & Smolensky, 2013; Yoshinaka et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 34 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Haus dan Smolensky, (2013) dan Yoshinaka et al., (2017) menjelaskan bahwa ketidakteraturan siklus estrus ini disebabkan lama atau tidaknya mencit terpapar cahaya. Keadaan tersebut mengalami gangguan jika mengalami pemanjangan atapun pemendekan dari fotoperiode normal, yang pada akhirnya menyebabkan tidak teraturnya siklus estrus. Seperti halnya yang terjadi saat fotoperiode gelap total (0 jam terang: 24 jam gelap) dan hari pendek (6 jam terang: 18 jam gelap), pada kondisi ini mengalami pemanjangan siklus walaupun pada gelap total cendrung mendekati normal. Ketidakteraturan siklus estrus ini terjadi akibat pemanjangan estradiol ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1095/biolreprod27.2.327”, “ISBN” : “0006-3363 (Print)\r0006-3363 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “0006-3363”, “PMID” : “6889895”, “abstract” : “Cycle frequency, length, and vaginal cytology were measured longitudinally in three cohorts of singly housed virgin mice staggered across a 3-year interval. The age profiles of these parameters were qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, among cohorts. Cycle frequency was initially low (Phase I), due to prolonged cycles and late-starting cycles, and did not peak (Phase II) until mice were 3-5 months old. Phase II lasted for 7-10 months, depending on the cohort. Thereafter cycle frequency declined steadily (Phase III). The average age of cessation of cyclicity varied among cohorts, occurring between 13 and 16 months of age. Age changes in cycle length paralleled those of cycle frequency. During Phase II, median cycle length was less than 5 days and variance was lowest. During Phases I and III, variance was about twofold greater and median cycle length was greater than 5 days. Although median cycle length remained stable for several months during Phase II, the peak period of 4-day cycles was much shorter. In all cohorts, 4-day cycles did not peak until 7-8 months of age and began to decline by 9 months. The decrease in 4-day cycles was associated with a progressive lengthening of cycles-first from 4 to 5 days, then to longer cycles. The fraction of cycles with extended cornification (greater than 2 days) increased with advancing age from less than 0.35 during the initial period of cycle lengthening to a maximum of 0.60. The observation that the initial phase o cycle prolongation was not usually associated with extended cornification is consistent with earlier evidence that this period is characterized by a delayed, rather than prolonged, preovulatory rise of estradiol. However, the increased fraction of prolonged cycles with extended cornification at later ages suggests that the preovulatory elevation of estradiol may ultimately be prolonged.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nelson”, “given” : “James F”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Felicio”, “given” : “L S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Randall”, “given” : “Patrick K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sims”, “given” : “Clifford”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Finch”, “given” : “Caleb E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Biology of reproduction”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1982” }, “page” : “327-39”, “title” : “A longitudinal study of estrous cyclicity in aging C57BL/6J mice: I. Cycle frequency, length and vaginal cytology.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “27” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8b97d1c5-6d3e-42bf-89d6-9561423e8474” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nelson, Felicio, Randall, Sims, & Finch, 1982)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Nelson et al (1982))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nelson, Felicio, Randall, Sims, & Finch, 1982)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nelson, Felicio, Randall, Sims, & Finch, 1982)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 34 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nelson et al., 1982), yang berdampak semakin lama siklus berlangsung. Selain itu, saat gelap SCN akan mensekresikan melatonin. Melatonin merupakan antigonadotropin ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1210/en.2003-0802”, “ISBN” : “0013-7227 (Print)”, “ISSN” : “00137227”, “PMID” : “12960008”, “abstract” : “The center for circadian rhythms in mammals is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, composed of single cell circadian oscillators driven by a transcriptional/translational feedback loop where clock proteins drive clock gene expression. These genes are expressed in peripheral tissues and several brain areas outside the SCN. It is likely that some peripheral oscillators are synchronized by the SCN. The pineal hormone melatonin plays an important role in the entrainment of circadian rhythms through feedback to the SCN. Melatonin also plays a role in reproduction, including direct effects on GnRH-secreting GT1-7 neurons. The intrinsic rhythmicity of GnRH neurons suggests that these neurons may express the components of the circadian oscillator. Using the GT1-7 cell line, we demonstrate expression of the circadian rhythm genes, clock, BMAL1,timeless (tim), period1,period2, cryptochrome1, andcryptochrome2. Furthermore, semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrates that BMAL1, period1, andperiod2 as well as GnRH mRNAs are expressed with a circadian-like rhythm after synchronization over 54 h. With available antibodies, we demonstrated CLOCK, BMAL1, and PERIOD1 protein expression in these cells, with BMAL1 protein levels showing a rhythmic expression pattern. In addition, receptors for melatonin, mt1 and MT2, also show a circadian expression pattern in the GT1-7 cells, and their expression is down-regulated by melatonin treatment. These findings suggest that the components of the clock machinery in mammals may play a role in GnRH neuronal function.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gillespie”, “given” : “Julia M.A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chan”, “given” : “Beverley P.K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roy”, “given” : “Deboleena”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cai”, “given” : “Fang”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Belsham”, “given” : “Denise D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Endocrinology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2003” }, “page” : “5285-5292”, “title” : “Expression of Circadian Rhythm Genes in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Secreting GT1-7 Neurons”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “144” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=683aaf43-06d5-4455-bf62-cc21c46bb052” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gillespie, Chan, Roy, Cai, & Belsham, 2003)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Gillespie et al (2003))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gillespie, Chan, Roy, Cai, & Belsham, 2003)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gillespie, Chan, Roy, Cai, & Belsham, 2003)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 34 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gillespie et al., (2003)), sehingga saat melatonin diproduksi lebih banyak atau konstan berdampak pada tidak dihasilkanya gonadotropin sama sekali, sehingga periode siklus akan terhenti. Keadaan inilah yang menyebabkan tertundanya siklus estrus dan mengindikasikan telah terjadi ketidakteraturan siklus.
Saat fotoperiode terang total (24 jam terang: 0 jam gelap) dan hari panjang (18 jam terang: 6 jam gelap), siklus cenderung mengalami pemendekan, akibat terganggunya fungsi SCN dan sekresi melatonin yang berpengaruh pada percepatan siklus. Karena saat terang, melatonin sama sekali tidak dihasilkan yang berdampak pada tidak adanya hambatan sekresi gonadotropin, sehingga siklus lebih cepat terjadi dari normal dan berlansung terus menerus. Perpendekan ini terjadi akibat semakin tingginya hormon kortikosteron plasma didalam darah ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2012”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Influence of Photoperiod on Stress Response and Reproduction Parameter of Male Mice ( Mus musculus L .) of Swiss Webster Strain”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=11b64362-b9e7-426f-87b8-bb4b3decfc53” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ridwan”, “given” : “Ahmad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zakaria”, “given” : “Zuliyanto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “39-45”, “title” : “Pengaruh Fotoperiode terhadap Respon Stres dan Parameter Reproduksi pada Mencit Jantan ( Mus musculus L .) Galur Swiss Webster”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=41853624-5291-4ece-8e47-99e109a55a40” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ridwan dkk (2012; 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ridwan, 2015; Ridwan & Zakaria, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 34 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ridwan et al., (2012) dan Ridwan, (2015). Ditambahkan bahwa, saat kortikosteron plasma (CORT) tinggi didalam darah maka respon tubuh adalah menunjukkan gejala depresi yang secara tidak langsung menghambat regulasi gonadotropin di hipotalamus. Jika CORT tidak dihasilkan atau tidak diregulasikan maka akan mempercepat siklus menuju anovulasi akibat terus menerusnya terjadi ovulasi.
Fotoperiode berpengaruh nyata (P;0,05) terhadap panjang siklus estrus rata-rata secara ANAVA (Lampiran 8.). Perlakuan P5 berbeda nyata (P;0,05) terhadap kontrol dan perlakuan lainnya kecuali P4. Semakin banyak jumlah siklus, maka panjang siklus estrus akan semakin singkat. Sejalan dengan hasil penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/gtc.12522”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yoshinaka”, “given” : “Kiichi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yamaguchi”, “given” : “Ai”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Matsumura”, “given” : “Ritsuko”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Node”, “given” : “Koichi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokuda”, “given” : “Isao”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akashi”, “given” : “Makoto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “gene to cell”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “876-884”, “title” : “Effect of different lightu2013dark schedules on estrous cycle in mice, and implications for mitigating the adverse impact of night work”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “22” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba3538f3-245d-4062-b743-fe001288ccff” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “Yoshinaka et al (2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 35 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Yoshinaka et al., (2017) pada mencit (Mus musculus domesticus) strain C57BL6 betina berumur 9 minggu dilaporkan bahwa fotoperiode berpengaruh signifikan dalam mempengaruhi panjang siklus (P;0,05).

Tabel 2. Jumlah dan Panjang Siklus Estrus pada Setiap Perlakuan
Parameter Fotoperiode
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
Jumlah Siklus
Rata-rata (x) 7,53ab±0,50 8,36bc±0,66 7,07a±0,31 8,53c±0,50 9,27c±0,45
Panjang Siklus Rata-rata (Hari) 4,11ab±0,49 3,83bc±0,46 4,51a±0,81 3,68cd±0,34 3,28d±0,36
Keterangan. Nilai meliputi rata-rata ± standar deviasi (p=0, 05) (n=13). Keterangan. P1 (0T:24G), P2 (6T:18G), P3(12T:12G), P4(18T:6G), P5(24T:0G); T (Terang) dan G (Gelap). .
Panjang yang singkat itu diindikasikan kuat bahwa terganggunya durasi cahaya pada malam hari menginduksikan terganggunya ritmik sirkardian yang mengakibatkan efek negatif pada fungsi reproduksi wanita ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.cub.2004.07.055”, “ISBN” : “0960-9822 (Print)\n0960-9822 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “09609822”, “PMID” : “15296754”, “abstract” : “Classic experiments have shown that ovulation and estrous cyclicity are under circadian control and that surgical ablation of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) results in estrous acyclicity in rats 1-3. Here, we characterized reproductive function in the circadian Clock mutant mouse 4, 5 and found that the circadian Clock mutation both disrupts estrous cyclicity and interferes with the maintenance of pregnancy. Clock mutant females have extended, irregular estrous cycles, lack a coordinated luteinizing hormone (LH) surge on the day of proestrus, exhibit increased fetal reabsorption during pregnancy, and have a high rate of full-term pregnancy failure. Clock mutants also show an unexpected decline in progesterone levels at midpregnancy and a shortened duration of pseudopregnancy, suggesting that maternal prolactin release may be abnormal. In a second set of experiments, we interrogated the function of each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in order to determine how the Clock mutation disrupts estrous cyclicity. We report that Clock mutants fail to show an LH surge following estradiol priming in spite of the fact that hypothalamic levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary release of LH, and serum levels of estradiol and progesterone are all normal in Clock/Clock females. These data suggest that Clock mutants lack an appropriate circadian daily-timing signal required to coordinate hypothalamic hormone secretion. Defining the mechanisms by which the Clock mutation disrupts reproductive function offers a model for understanding how circadian genes affect complex physiological systems.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Miller”, “given” : “Brooke H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Olson”, “given” : “Susan Losee”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Turek”, “given” : “Fred W.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Levine”, “given” : “Jon E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Horton”, “given” : “Teresa H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takahashi”, “given” : “Joseph S.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Current Biology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “15”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “page” : “1367-1373”, “title” : “Circadian Clock mutation disrupts estrous cyclicity and maintenance of pregnancy”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “14” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bee1abf4-b20b-48da-9034-af7124bde5b3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Miller et al., 2004)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Miller et al (2004))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Miller et al., 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Miller et al., 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 35 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Miller et al., 2004). ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.049”, “ISBN” : “2211-1247 (Electronic)”, “ISSN” : “22111247”, “PMID” : “26299967”, “abstract” : “Female reproductive function changes during aging with the estrous cycle becoming more irregular during the transition to menopause. We found that intermittent shifts of the light-dark cycle disrupted regularity of estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, whose estrous cycles were regular under unperturbed 24-hr light-dark cycles. Although female mice deficient in Cry1 or Cry2, the core components of the molecular circadian clock, exhibited regular estrous cycles during youth, they showed accelerated senescence characterized by irregular and unstable estrous cycles and resultant infertility in middle age. Notably, tuning the period length of the environmental light-dark cycles closely to the endogenous one inherent in the Cry-deficient females restored the regularity of the estrous cycles and, consequently, improved fertility in middle age. These results suggest that reproductive potential can be strongly influenced by age-related changes in the circadian system and normal reproductive functioning can be rescued by the manipulation of environmental timing signals. Takasu et al. show that weekly perturbation of the light-dark cycle disrupts estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, and early infertility evident in female mice deficient in core circadian clock genes is improved by coordinating environmental and endogenous circadian rhythms. These findings suggest that an age-related decline in fertility may be rescued by control of environmental timing signals.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takasu”, “given” : “Nana N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakamura”, “given” : “Takahiro J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokuda”, “given” : “Isao T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Todo”, “given” : “Takeshi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Block”, “given” : “Gene D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakamura”, “given” : “Wataru”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Cell Reports”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “9”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1407-1413”, “publisher” : “The Authors”, “title” : “Recovery from Age-Related Infertility under Environmental Light-Dark Cycles Adjusted to the Intrinsic Circadian Period”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “12” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=89a8505b-0891-4f80-a66f-a1193a5b7378” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Takasu et al., 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Takasu et al (2015))”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Takasu et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Takasu et al., 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 35 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Takasu et al., 2015) telah menjelaskan bahwa perbedaan durasi secara eksternal (pengaruh lingkungan) secara tidak langsung mempengaruhi ketidakteraturan siklus estrus pada mencit galur Wild Type. Sehingga, diketahui bahwa semakin panjang penerangan yang terjadi akan menyebabkan semakin terganggunya siklus estrus yang menyebabkan terjadinya perpendekan. Akan tetapi jumlah hari masing-masing siklus pada setiap perlakuan cenderung mengalami kenaikan mulai dari awal pengamatan hingga akhir pengamatan (Gambar 11.). Rata-rata siklus estrus pada perlakuan hari pendek dan siang total memiliki kecendrungan berbeda nyata (P;0,05), dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Hari pendek dan terang total menyebabkan ketidakteraturan siklus reproduksi pada mencit. Pola yang sama juga pernah terjadi pada penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya. Penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/gtc.12522”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yoshinaka”, “given” : “Kiichi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yamaguchi”, “given” : “Ai”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Matsumura”, “given” : “Ritsuko”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Node”, “given” : “Koichi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokuda”, “given” : “Isao”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akashi”, “given” : “Makoto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “gene to cell”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “876-884”, “title” : “Effect of different lightu2013dark schedules on estrous cycle in mice, and implications for mitigating the adverse impact of night work”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “22” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba3538f3-245d-4062-b743-fe001288ccff” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “Yoshinaka et al (2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 35 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Yoshinaka et al., (2017) dan Takasu et al., (2015) menyebutkan bahwa pola ini mengindikasikan bahwa telah terjadinya ketidakteraturan siklus yang terjadi akibat perubahan kondisi eksternal yang mempengaruhi ritmik tubuh. Sehingga diketahui bahwa ketidakteraturannya siklus dapat diakibatkan oleh pola cahaya dan gelap dalam siklus fotoperiode yang menjauhi normal. Sehingga, diketahui bahwa ketidakteraturan siklus yang terjadi menunjukkan telah terganggunya regulasi hormonal yang terjadi didalam tubuh mencit.

Gambar 11. Panjang Siklus Estrus Per Perlakuan. Keterangan. : A. P1 (0T:24G), B. P2 (6T:18G), C. P4 (18T:6G), D. P5 (24T:0G), E. P3 (12T:12G); T (Terang) dan G(Gelap).

Terlihat bahwa kondisi optimum untuk fotoperiode pada mencit ada pada durasi 12 jam terang : 12 jam gelap. Terlihat pada keteraturan siklus yang terjadi mendekati keadaan normal. Semakin menjauhi kondisi optimum menyebabkan terganggunya regulasi jalur HPG di hipotalamus, sehingga menyebabkan ketidakteraturan siklus estrus.

4. 2. Pengaruh Fotoperiode Terhadap Berat Badan Harian Mencit
Durasi penerangan panjang (P4) mempengaruhi berat badan harian mencit dan pertambahan bobot badan (Tabel 3.). Fotoperiode berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap rata-rata berat badan harian dan pertambahan bobot badan (P;0,05) (Lampiran 11. dan Lampiran 13) dengan P4 berbeda nyata dengan kontrol dan semua pelakuan lainnya (P;0,05). Pertambahan bobot tubuh pada fotoperiode 12 jam terang : 12 jam gelap (P3, Kontrol) 1,60%. Berbeda dengan penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi”, “given” : “M.Suresh dan U. Kavitha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “March”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “A study on effect of altered circadian rhythm in the development of obesity”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a839cea0-9867-424b-8172-4fb774f6100c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “Kate, (2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 37 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Kate, (2012) 5,6% yaitu telah terjadi penurunan pertambahan bobot tubuh walaupun hasil penelitian lebih rendah daripada penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi”, “given” : “M.Suresh dan U. Kavitha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “March”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “A study on effect of altered circadian rhythm in the development of obesity”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a839cea0-9867-424b-8172-4fb774f6100c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “Kate, (2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 37 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Kate, (2012) (;5,6%) dan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1210/er.2013-1051”, “ISBN” : “0163-769X”, “ISSN” : “0163769X”, “PMID” : “24673196”, “abstract” : “Most organisms display endogenously produced u223cf24 h fluctuations in physiology and behavior, termed circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are driven by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop that is hierarchically expressed throughout the brain and body, with the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus serving as the master circadian oscillator at the top of the hierarchy. Appropriate circadian regulation is important for many homeostatic functions including energy regulation. Multiple genes involved in nutrient metabolism display rhythmic oscillations and metabolically related hormones such as glucagon, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and corticosterone are released in a circadian fashion. Mice harboring mutations in circadian clock genes alter feeding behavior, endocrine signaling, and dietary fat absorption. Moreover, misalignment between behavioral and molecular circadian clocks can result in obesity in both rodents and humans. Importantly, circadian rhythms are most potently synchronized to the external environment by light information and exposure to light at night potentially disrupts circadian system function. Since the advent of electric lights around the turn of the 20th century, exposure to artificial and irregular light schedules has become commonplace. The increase in exposure to light at night parallels the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders. In this review, we propose that exposure to light at night alters metabolic function through disruption of the circadian system. We first provide an introduction to the circadian system, with a specific emphasis on the effects of light on circadian rhythms. Next we address interactions between the circadian system and metabolism. Finally, we review current experimental and epidemiological work directly associating exposure to light at night and metabolism.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fonken”, “given” : “Laura K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nelson”, “given” : “Randy J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Endocrine Reviews”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “The effects of light at night on circadian clocks and metabolism”, “type” : “article”, “volume” : “35” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4dce2330-0b15-3761-a4df-5f5531f1abb4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Laura K. Fonken & Nelson, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “Fronken and Nelson, (2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Laura K. Fonken & Nelson, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Laura K. Fonken & Nelson, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 37 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Fronken dan Nelson, (2014)(;8%). Bedasarkan penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi”, “given” : “M.Suresh dan U. Kavitha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “March”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “A study on effect of altered circadian rhythm in the development of obesity”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a839cea0-9867-424b-8172-4fb774f6100c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “Kate, (2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 37 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Kate, (2012) dan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1210/er.2013-1051”, “ISBN” : “0163-769X”, “ISSN” : “0163769X”, “PMID” : “24673196”, “abstract” : “Most organisms display endogenously produced u223cf24 h fluctuations in physiology and behavior, termed circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are driven by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop that is hierarchically expressed throughout the brain and body, with the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus serving as the master circadian oscillator at the top of the hierarchy. Appropriate circadian regulation is important for many homeostatic functions including energy regulation. Multiple genes involved in nutrient metabolism display rhythmic oscillations and metabolically related hormones such as glucagon, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and corticosterone are released in a circadian fashion. Mice harboring mutations in circadian clock genes alter feeding behavior, endocrine signaling, and dietary fat absorption. Moreover, misalignment between behavioral and molecular circadian clocks can result in obesity in both rodents and humans. Importantly, circadian rhythms are most potently synchronized to the external environment by light information and exposure to light at night potentially disrupts circadian system function. Since the advent of electric lights around the turn of the 20th century, exposure to artificial and irregular light schedules has become commonplace. The increase in exposure to light at night parallels the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders. In this review, we propose that exposure to light at night alters metabolic function through disruption of the circadian system. We first provide an introduction to the circadian system, with a specific emphasis on the effects of light on circadian rhythms. Next we address interactions between the circadian system and metabolism. Finally, we review current experimental and epidemiological work directly associating exposure to light at night and metabolism.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fonken”, “given” : “Laura K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nelson”, “given” : “Randy J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Endocrine Reviews”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “The effects of light at night on circadian clocks and metabolism”, “type” : “article”, “volume” : “35” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4dce2330-0b15-3761-a4df-5f5531f1abb4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Laura K. Fonken & Nelson, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “Fronken and Nelson, (2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Laura K. Fonken & Nelson, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Laura K. Fonken & Nelson, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 37 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Fronken dan Nelson, (2014) yaitu pada rentang 5,6% sampai 8% disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor. Faktor yang paling mendasar dalam mempengaruhi PBB ini adalah umur dan tingkat konsumsi nutrisi pada masing-masing mencit, semakin besar tingkat konsumsinya maka semakin besar pula pertambahan bobot badannya. Pernyataan ini dibuktikan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/nu8020087”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fontana”, “given” : “Roberta”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “Della”, “family” : “Torre”, “given” : “Sara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction : A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e488de26-fe7f-4cd1-beb5-12e7e50e87f1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fontana & Torre, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “Fontana and Sara, (2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fontana & Torre, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fontana & Torre, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 37 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Fontana dan Sara, (2016), pada penelitiannya juga mengatakan bahwa nutrisi ini merupakan faktor antara yang paling erat kaitannya dengan peningkatan berat badan harian dan kesehatan reproduksi wanita. Jadi, Cahaya tidak berpengaruh langsung dalam mempengaruhi PBB mencit, tetapi merupakan faktor antara yang menyebabkan perbedaan tingkat konsumsi yang mengakibatkan terpengaruhnya jalur metabolisme tubuh yang pada akhirnya nanti akan mempengaruhi kesehatan reproduksi yang terlihat dari teraturnya siklus reproduksi dalam satu periode. Penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1073/pnas.0605374104”, “ISBN” : “0605374104”, “ISSN” : “0027-8424”, “PMID” : “17210919”, “abstract” : “The trillions of microbes that colonize our adult intestines function collectively as a metabolic organ that communicates with, and complements, our own human metabolic apparatus. Given the worldwide epidemic in obesity, there is interest in how interactions between human and microbial metabolomes may affect our energy balance. Here we report that, in contrast to mice with a gut microbiota, germ-free (GF) animals are protected against the obesity that develops after consuming a Western-style, high-fat, sugar-rich diet. Their persistently lean phenotype is associated with increased skeletal muscle and liver levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream targets involved in fatty acid oxidation (acetylCoA carboxylase; carnitine-palmitoyltransferase). Moreover, GF knockout mice lacking fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf), a circulating lipoprotein lipase inhibitor whose expression is normally selectively suppressed in the gut epithelium by the microbiota, are not protected from diet-induced obesity. Although GF Fiaf-/- animals exhibit similar levels of phosphorylated AMPK as their wild-type littermates in liver and gastrocnemius muscle, they have reduced expression of genes encoding the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (Pgc-1alpha) and enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Thus, GF animals are protected from diet-induced obesity by two complementary but independent mechanisms that result in increased fatty acid metabolism: (i) elevated levels of Fiaf, which induces Pgc-1alpha; and (ii) increased AMPK activity. Together, these findings support the notion that the gut microbiota can influence both sides of the energy balance equation, and underscore the importance of considering our metabolome in a supraorganismal context.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bu00e4ckhed”, “given” : “Fredrik”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Manchester”, “given” : “Jill K.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Semenkovich”, “given” : “Clay F.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gordon”, “given” : “Jeffrey I.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “979-984”, “title” : “Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “104” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1716c151-d886-4afb-a8e0-bb737c28b475” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1073/pnas.0706473105”, “ISBN” : “1091-6490 (Electronic)\n0027-8424 (Linking)”, “ISSN” : “1091-6490”, “PMID” : “18458326”, “abstract” : “Body weight is regulated by complex neurohormonal interactions between endocrine signals of long-term adiposity (e.g., leptin, a hypothalamic signal) and short-term satiety (e.g., amylin, a hind-brain signal). We report that concurrent peripheral administration of amylin and leptin elicits synergistic, fat-specific weight loss in leptin-resistant, diet-induced obese rats. Weight loss synergy was specific to amylin treatment, compared with other anorexigenic peptides, and dissociable from amylin’s effect on food intake. The addition of leptin after amylin pretreatment elicited further weight loss, compared with either monotherapy condition. In a 24-week randomized, double-blind, clinical proof-of-concept study in over-weight/obese subjects, coadministration of recombinant human leptin and the amylin analog pramlintide elicited 12.7% mean weight loss, significantly more than was observed with either treatment alone (P < 0.01). In obese rats, amylin pretreatment partially restored hypothalamic leptin signaling (pSTAT3 immuno-reactivity) within the ventromedial, but not the arcuate nucleus and up-regulated basal and leptin-stimulated signaling in the hindbrain area postrema. These findings provide both nonclinical and clinical evidence that amylin agonism restored leptin respon-siveness in diet-induced obesity, suggesting that integrated neu-rohormonal approaches to obesity pharmacotherapy may facilitate greater weight loss by harnessing naturally occurring synergies. T he discovery of leptin in 1994 (1) revolutionized our under-standing of the biological basis of body-weight regulation and raised hopes that this adipokine could be a breakthrough treatment for obesity. Although leptin plays a pivotal role in regulating energy homeostasis in rodents and humans, its pharmaceutical develop-ment as a stand-alone antiobesity agent has proven unsuccessful (2). Although leptin replacement elicits profound weight loss in leptin-deficient (Lep ob /Lep ob) mice and humans (3, 4), even high phar-macological doses elicit only marginal weight loss in non-leptin-deficient, diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents and humans (2, 5). The obese state is thus thought to be associated with ”leptin resistance,” wherein overweight/obese individuals become insensitive to high circulating leptin concentrations (6). The mechanistic basis for leptin resistance is poorly understood, but rodent data implicate leptin transport saturation (7), leptin receptor down-regulation (8), and reducedu2026″, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roth”, “given” : “Jonathan D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roland”, “given” : “Barbara L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cole”, “given” : “Rebecca L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Trevaskis”, “given” : “James L”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Weyer”, “given” : “Christian”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Koda”, “given” : “Joy E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anderson”, “given” : “Christen M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Parkes”, “given” : “David G”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Baron”, “given” : “Alain D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Unger”, “given” : “Roger H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “20”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “page” : “7257-7262”, “title” : “Leptin responsiveness restored by amylin agonism in diet-induced obesity: Evidence from nonclinical and clinical studies”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “105” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=def1c911-daec-4e3b-a6ad-272fb58bc21f” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1073/pnas.1504239112”, “ISBN” : “1091-6490”, “ISSN” : “0027-8424”, “PMID” : “25964318”, “abstract” : “Increased light exposure has been associated with obesity in both humans and mice. In this article, we elucidate a mechanistic basis of this association by performing studies in mice. We report that prolonging daily light exposure increases adiposity by decreasing energy expenditure rather than increasing food intake or locomotor activity. This was caused by a light-exposure period-dependent attenuation of the noradrenergic activation of brown adipose tissue that has recently been shown to contribute substantially to energy expenditure by converting fatty acids and glucose into heat. Therefore, we conclude that impaired brown adipose tissue activity may mediate the relationship between increased light exposure and adiposity.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kooijman”, “given” : “Sander”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Berg”, “given” : “Rosa”, “non-dropping-particle” : “van den”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ramkisoensing”, “given” : “Ashna”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boon”, “given” : “Mariu00ebtte R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kuipers”, “given” : “Eline N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Loef”, “given” : “Marieke”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zonneveld”, “given” : “Tom C. M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lucassen”, “given” : “Eliane A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sips”, “given” : “Hetty C. M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chatzispyrou”, “given” : “Iliana A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Houtkooper”, “given” : “Riekelt H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Meijer”, “given” : “Johanna H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Coomans”, “given” : “Claudia P.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Biermasz”, “given” : “Nienke R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rensen”, “given” : “Patrick C. N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-3”, “issue” : “21”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “6748-6753”, “title” : “Prolonged daily light exposure increases body fat mass through attenuation of brown adipose tissue activity”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “112” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=eace3ac1-2210-46c1-8c2e-61abd2122e4e” }, { “id” : “ITEM-4”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1073/pnas.1706517114”, “ISBN” : “1706517114”, “ISSN” : “0027-8424”, “PMID” : “28973869”, “abstract” : “The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate but treatment options remain limited. Despite initial success, weight loss by calorie restriction (CR) often fails because of rebound weight gain. Postdieting hyperphagia along with altered hypothalamic neuro-architecture appears to be one direct cause of this undesirable outcome. In response to calorie deficiency the circulating levels of the appetite-promoting hormone, acyl-ghrelin, rise sharply. We hypothesize that proper modulation of acyl-ghrelin and its receptor’s sensitivity will favorably impact energy intake and reprogram the body weight set point. Here we applied viral gene transfer of the acyl-ghrelin hydrolyzing enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Our results confirmed that BChE overexpression decreased circulating acyl-ghrelin levels, suppressed CR-provoked ghrelin signaling, and restored central ghrelin sensitivity. In addition to maintaining healthy body weights, BChE treated mice had modest postdieting food intake and showed normal glucose homeostasis. Spontaneous activity and energy expenditure did not differ significantly between treated and untreated mice after body weight rebound, suggesting that BChE gene transfer did not alter energy expenditure in the long term. These findings indicate that combining BChE treatment with CR could be an effective approach in treating human obesity and aiding lifelong weight management.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chen”, “given” : “Vicky Ping”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gao”, “given” : “Yang”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Geng”, “given” : “Liyi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Brimijoin”, “given” : “Stephen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, “id” : “ITEM-4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “201706517”, “title” : “Butyrylcholinesterase gene transfer in obese mice prevents postdieting body weight rebound by suppressing ghrelin signaling”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d3f55b8f-140c-4c70-a182-861826090ceb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bu00e4ckhed, Manchester, Semenkovich, & Gordon, 2007; Chen, Gao, Geng, & Brimijoin, 2017; Kooijman et al., 2015; Roth et al., 2008)”, “manualFormatting” : “Bu00e4ckhed et al (2007); Roth et al (2008; Kooijman et al (2015); Chen et al (2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bu00e4ckhed, Manchester, Semenkovich, & Gordon, 2007; Chen, Gao, Geng, & Brimijoin, 2017; Kooijman et al., 2015; Roth et al., 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bu00e4ckhed, Manchester, Semenkovich, & Gordon, 2007; Chen, Gao, Geng, & Brimijoin, 2017; Kooijman et al., 2015; Roth et al., 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 38 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Bäckhed et al., (2007); Roth et al., (2008); Kooijman et al., (2015) dan Chen et al., (2017) menunjukkan bahwa mekanisme yang terjadi adalah cahaya akan menuju SCN dan merangsang SCN untuk memproduksi hormon Leptin pada jalur metabolisme tubuh di dalam sel Arcute Nucleus (AN) setelah itu menuju ke sistem pencernaan tepatnya di hati dan lambung untuk mensekresikan gherin dan memproduksi enzim butyrilcholinesterase, sehingga tubuh merespon untuk terjadinya rasa lapar. Semakin panjang penyinaran yang terjadi maka rasa lapar ini berkurang namun rasa haus yang terjadi. Dengan demikian, diketahui bahwa kontrol utama SCN akan mempengaruhi regulasi metabolisme tubuh akibat singkatnya fotoperiode. Disisi yang lain (Tabel 3.) menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi kenaikan dan penurunan rata-rata bobot badan harian dengan kenaikan bobot rata-rata terjadi saat (P1, gelap total) dan (P5, terang total) serta yang terendah pada (P4, hari panjang), sementara (P2, hari pendek) cendrung mendekati kontrol.

Tabel 3. Pengaruh Fotoperiode terhadap berat badan harian mencit
Parameter Fotoperiode
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
Berat Badan awal (g) 22,00±0,00 22,0±0,00 22,00±0,00 22,00±0,00 22,00±0,00
Berat Badan akhir (g) 23,82a±0,35 23,58a±0,14 23,60a±0,33 23,08b±0,20 23,79a±0,24
Pertambahan Bobot badan (%) 1,82a±0,35 1,58a±0,14 1,60a±0,33 1,08b±0,20 1,79a±0,24
Keterangan. T: Terang dan G: Gelap. P1 (0T:24G), P2 (6T:18G), P3 (12T:12G), P4 (18T: 6G) dan P5 (24T:0G).
Hal ini berbeda dengan penelitian sebelumnya yang dilakukan oleh ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/gtc.12522”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yoshinaka”, “given” : “Kiichi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yamaguchi”, “given” : “Ai”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Matsumura”, “given” : “Ritsuko”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Node”, “given” : “Koichi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokuda”, “given” : “Isao”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Akashi”, “given” : “Makoto”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “gene to cell”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “876-884”, “title” : “Effect of different lightu2013dark schedules on estrous cycle in mice, and implications for mitigating the adverse impact of night work”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “22” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba3538f3-245d-4062-b743-fe001288ccff” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “Yoshinaka et al (2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Yoshinaka et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 35 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Yoshinaka et al., (2017) pada mencit betina (Mus musculus domesticus) strain C57BL6 berumur 9 minggu bahwa fotoperiode tidak berpengaruh nyata dalam mempengaruhi pertambahan bobot badan (P;0,05). Selanjutnya, pertambahan bobot badan ini juga disebabkan oleh nutrisi pada pakan yang dikonsumsi. Keadaan ini dipengaruhi oleh fotoperiode seperti penelitian ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi”, “given” : “M.Suresh dan U. Kavitha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “March”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “title” : “A study on effect of altered circadian rhythm in the development of obesity”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a839cea0-9867-424b-8172-4fb774f6100c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “Kate and Suresh, (2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 38 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Kate dan Suresh, (2012) melaporkan bahwa tingkat konsumsi pada penerangan konstan malam hari (24 jam terang) tertinggi dengan pertambahan bobot tubuh terbesar diantara semua perlakuan. Tidak hanya pertambahan bobot tubuh yang dipengaruhi, melainkan juga masa tubuh. Sehingga diketahui bahwa pertambahan bobot tubuh dipengaruhi oleh fotoperiode secara langsung melalui jalur regulasi metabolisme tubuh dan merupakan faktor antara yang sangat penting antara gangguan reproduksi terhadap jalur metabolisme tubuh. Banyak penelitian yang sejalan dengan pola rata-rata berat badan harian dan pola PBB harian yang semuanya menunjukkan rata-rata dan pola yang hampir serupa walaupun terjadi perbedaan yang nyata pada pertambahan bobot tubuh harian (%), dimana pada penerangan total, penerangan dimalam hari dan kegelapan total itu telah mempengaruhi peningkatan dan penurunan bobot tubuh secara tidak langsung ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.3390/nu8020087”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fontana”, “given” : “Roberta”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “Della”, “family” : “Torre”, “given” : “Sara”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction : A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e488de26-fe7f-4cd1-beb5-12e7e50e87f1” }, { “id” : “ITEM-2”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.049”, “ISBN” : “2211-1247 (Electronic)”, “ISSN” : “22111247”, “PMID” : “26299967”, “abstract” : “Female reproductive function changes during aging with the estrous cycle becoming more irregular during the transition to menopause. We found that intermittent shifts of the light-dark cycle disrupted regularity of estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, whose estrous cycles were regular under unperturbed 24-hr light-dark cycles. Although female mice deficient in Cry1 or Cry2, the core components of the molecular circadian clock, exhibited regular estrous cycles during youth, they showed accelerated senescence characterized by irregular and unstable estrous cycles and resultant infertility in middle age. Notably, tuning the period length of the environmental light-dark cycles closely to the endogenous one inherent in the Cry-deficient females restored the regularity of the estrous cycles and, consequently, improved fertility in middle age. These results suggest that reproductive potential can be strongly influenced by age-related changes in the circadian system and normal reproductive functioning can be rescued by the manipulation of environmental timing signals. Takasu et al. show that weekly perturbation of the light-dark cycle disrupts estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, and early infertility evident in female mice deficient in core circadian clock genes is improved by coordinating environmental and endogenous circadian rhythms. These findings suggest that an age-related decline in fertility may be rescued by control of environmental timing signals.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Takasu”, “given” : “Nana N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakamura”, “given” : “Takahiro J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tokuda”, “given” : “Isao T.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Todo”, “given” : “Takeshi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Block”, “given” : “Gene D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nakamura”, “given” : “Wataru”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Cell Reports”, “id” : “ITEM-2”, “issue” : “9”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “1407-1413”, “publisher” : “The Authors”, “title” : “Recovery from Age-Related Infertility under Environmental Light-Dark Cycles Adjusted to the Intrinsic Circadian Period”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “12” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=89a8505b-0891-4f80-a66f-a1193a5b7378” }, { “id” : “ITEM-3”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi”, “given” : “M.Suresh dan U. 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Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012; Takasu et al., 2015; Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Ku00f6rtner and Geiser, 2012; Caba, 2017; Fontana and Sara, 2016; Kate and Nilesh, 2012; Takasu et al (2015); Yoshinaka et al (2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(CABA, 2017; Fontana & Torre, 2016; Ku00f6rtner, 2012; Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012; Takasu et al., 2015; Yoshinaka et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(CABA, 2017; Fontana & Torre, 2016; Ku00f6rtner, 2012; Nilesh Kate, M. Chandrasekhar, A. Kondam, E. Kayalvizhi, 2012; Takasu et al., 2015; Yoshinaka et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 38 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Körtner dan Geiser, 2012; Caba, 2017; Fontana dan Sara, 2016; Kate dan Nilesh, 2012; Takasu et al., 2015 dan Yoshinaka et al., 2017). Selain itu, panjang gelombang, interupsi cahayadan suhu juga merupakan faktor yang mempengaruhi berat badan (Bartness dan Wade, 1985; Masuda dan Oishi, 1988; Körtner dan Geiser, 1995; Gündüz et al., 2002; Gomes et al., 2006; Sahnoune dan de Vaufleury, 2009; Crovato-Veras et al., 2013 dan Alves et al., 2016). Dengan demikian, diketahui bahwa fotoperiode secara langsung mempengaruhi regulasi reproduksi pada jalur HPG yang berakibat pada ketidakteraturan siklus estrus rata-rata dan harian dan tidak mempengaruhi secara langsung pertambahan bobot badan.
4. 2. Kendala Selama Proses Penelitian
Fotoperiode memiliki pengaruh selain variable reproduksi dan berat badan harian yaitu factor transmisi infeksi dan imunitas mencit betina SW-MPF. Kedua variable ini ditemukan saat hari ke-8 pengamatan dimana salah satu mencit pada kandang perlakuan P2 (6 Terang : 18 Gelap) mengalami kematian mendadak dengan ciri-ciri patologi berupa pendarahan (hemoragi) di vagina dan mulut. Saat itu, mencit tersebut segera diisolasi. Sejak saat itu, kemungkinan infeksi telah menyebar ke mencit-mencit yang lain yang berada didalam kandang tersebut. Karena itu, diduga fotoperiode P2 akan mempercepat transmisi ke seluruh sampel uji, hal ini terbukti di hari ke-30 pengamatan seluruh sampel uji mengalami infeksi dan beberapa mengalami kematian mendadak, dan hanya ada 15 sampel uji secara acak pada masing-masing kandang yang mengalami sekarat.
Diantara 15 sampel uji hanya ada 5 sampel yang sudah mengalami sekarat yang parah, diantara 10 sampel yang sekarat tersebut memiliki diagnose patologi berupa misdireksi (kehilangan arah) serupa dengan ansieti, kemudian 4 setelahnya mengalami kelumpuhan bagian sinus (kiri) ekstrimitas atas, saat itu terjadi perilaku abnormal pada mencit yaitu cendrung lebih agresif daripada perilaku normalnya, kemudian tepat jam 13.30 WIB gejala patologis ketiga terjadi berupa kelumpuhan kedua ektrimitas bawah, terjadi maglinansi (hilangnya selera untuk makan dan minum dan cendrung diam) dan tepat pukul 14.00-15.20 WIB, sampel uji dibawa ke UPTD Laboratorium Kesehatan Hewan dan Kesmavet untuk di uji dan diperiksa tentang penyakit yang terjadi pada mencit saat itu, ada 4 mencit yang dibawa saat itu, sampel mati, sampel sekarat ringan, sekarat sedang dan sekarat parah. Hasil pemeriksaan yang difokuskan pada pemeriksaan patologi anatomi, bakteriologi medis, dan parasit darah dan feses. Kemudian pukul 16.20 – 17.00 WIB, gejala patologi akhir terjadi pada mencit yang mengalami sekarat parah yaitu hemoragi pada vagina dan mulut. Sementara yang lain masih dalam keadaan sekarat. Keesokan harinya tepat diakhir penelitian pada hari pengamatan ke-31, saat akan dilakukannya pengamatan histologi organ reproduksi, pada pukul 4.00 WIB semua mencit telah mengalami kematian. Setelah itu tepat pukul 7.30 WIB semua mencit yang mati itu segera dikubur diperkarangan kandang percobaan Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi.

Setelah itu pukul 8.00 – 09.30WIB segera menuju ke UPTD Laboratorium Keswan dan Kesmavet untuk mengambil hasil pemeriksaan klinis. Pada pemeriksaan bakteriologi medis, hasilnya negatif untuk seluruh patogen ataupun yang antagonis. Selanjutnya pada pemeriksaan patologi anatomi, ditemukan ulcer pada saluran pencernaan dan hemoragi pada ginjal dan urogenital, terjadi pembengkakan serviks dan diseksi uterus. Hasil pemeriksaan secara patologi anatomidisimpulkan bahwa mencit telah mengalami komplikasi meliputi infeksi saluran pencernaan, pecahnya ginjal dan abnormal pada saluran urogenital. Di pemeriksaan patologi anatomi ini juga didapatkan hasil bahwa telah terjadi kerusakan sel syaraf pada mencit yang menyebabkan mencit mengalami kelumpuhan mendadak dan terjadinya maglinansi. Selanjutnya hasil pemeriksaan parasit feses adalah negatif disemua sampel yang dikirim, tetapi pada pemeriksaan parasite darah ditemukan infeksi tunggal dan ganda dari Anaplasma phagocytophylum, Anaplasma sp dan Theileria annulata. Bedasarkan hasil tersebut, diketahui bahwa ketiga parasite inilah yang menyebabkan kelumpuhan dan kematian mendadak dengan ciri-ciri patologi hemoragi vagina dan mulut. Akibat hal tersebut kehilangan data mengenai struktur histopatologi ovarium, uterus dan vagina.

Mengenai hal tersebut, diduga terjadinya wabah parasite tersebut akibat rendahnya imunitas tubuh. Walton et al., (2012) menjelaskan bagaimana pengaruh fotoperiode terhadap hormon, perilaku dan imunitas. Dalam penelitiannya dikatakan bahwa fotoperiode pendek (6 Terang : 18 Gelap) berpengaruh spesifik terhadap faktor penghambat imundan respon imun didalam laboratorium. Keaddan ini sama seperti musim dingin, yaotu terjadi hambatan produksi sel limfosit dan sirkulasi sel imun didalam tubuh dan merubahnya kedalam bentuk mitogen. Selain itu juga merangsang pertumbuhan pathogen dan parasite dengan sangat cepat dari normal. Sejalan dengan hal ini diketahui bahwa fotoperiode pendek berpengaruh dalam transmisi penyebaran infeksi oleh patogen dan parasit, diantaranya adalah Anaplasma phagocytophylum, anaplasma spp. dan Theileria annulata. Akibat kematian dari wabah parasit darah tersebut, kehilangan data mengenai histopatologi organ reproduksi meliputi vagina, uterus dan ovarium.
V. Kesimpulan dan Saran
5. 1. Kesimpulan
Bedasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa:
Fotoperiode berpengaruh terhadap jumlah dan panjang siklus estrus rata-rata dan pertambahan bobot badan harian mencit betina SW-MPF.

Jumlah siklus rata-rata tertinggi dan panjang siklus tersingkat terjadi pada perlakuan P5
Pertambahan bobot badan teringan terjadi pada perlakuan P4 dan terberat terjadi pada perlakuan P1.

5. 2. Saran
Bedasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan disarankan untuk:
Dilihat bagaimana mekanisme interaksi spesifik antara fotoperiode terhadap patologi makroanatomi dan mikroanatomi ovarium, untuk mengindikasikan apakah telah terjadi PcOS (Policistic Ovarium Syndrom) yang merupakan indikasi terjadinya infertilitas.
Dilihat bagaimana pengaruh fotoperiode terhadap jumlah anak yang dihasilkan dan lamanya masa gestasi, sehingga diketahui lebih dalam bagaimana implikasi antara siklus estrus terhadap reproduksi mencit betina SW-MPF.

Dilihat bagaimana interaksi gangguan hormonal yang berdampak pada patologi makroanatomi dan mikroanatomi organ dan saluran reproduksi.
Dilihat bagaimana pengaruh fotoperiode terhadap keteraturan siklus pada primata. Informasi mengenai infertilitas pada manusia akibat fotoperiode diketahui lebih dalam.
Dilihat efisiensi metabolisme, tingkat konsumsi pakan dan air, serta tingkat ketahanan hidup (Angka survival (%SR)). Dilihat Pengaruh spesifik fotoperiode terhadap pertambahan bobot badan harian.
Matikanlah lampu pada saat malam hari ketika tidur dan kurangilah aktifitas yang dapat merubah ritmik sirkardian tubuh seperti bergadang, berinteraksi lebih lama di dunia malam dan bekerja shift, agar fungsi SCN, Melatonin dan Gonadotrophin berjalan dengan normal, sehingga kesehatan reproduksi terjaga.
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Jadwal Kegiatan
Tabel Periode Persiapan Penelitian (01 September 2017- 24 Oktober 2017)
KEGIATAN BULAN
SEPTEMBER 2017 OKTOBER 2017
1 2 3 4 1 2 3
Konstruksi Boks Pencahayaan Konstruksi dan Persiapan Kandang Konstruksi dan Persiapan Rak Pakan dan Minum Instalasi Listrik dan Pengukuran Lux Boks Pencahayaan Pengontrolan Suhu Kandang dan Suhu Boks Pencahayaan Pengontrolan Kelembaban Kandang Persiapan Hewan Percobaan Persiapan Alat dan Bahan Perisiapan Alas Kandang, Pakan dan Minum Persiapan posisi Boks Pencahayaan Pengacakan Boks Pencahayaan Pendataan dan Dokumentasi Kegiatan Tabel Periode Aklimatisasi (25 Oktober 2017- 10 November 2017)
KEGIATAN OKTOBER 2017 NOVEMBER 2017
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Pengontrolan Pakan dan Minum Pengontrolan Kebersihan Kandang Pengontrolan Berat Badan Harian Penentuan Berat Badan Awal Penelitian Penentuan Berat Pakan Optimum Pendataan dan Dokumentasi Kegiatan Tabel Periode Penelitian (11 November 2017 – 11 Desember 2017)
KEGIATAN PUKUL
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Pengontrolan Pakan dan Minum Penimbangan Berat Badan Harian Isolasi sel Ulas Vagina Penyimpanan Sel Preparasi pewarnaan Sel Pengamatan Sel Dokumentasi Kegiatan Penggantian Sekam Senin Kamis Jenis Pakan dan Nutrisi.
Jenis Pakan
Pakan yang digunakan adalah pakan komersil yang berbentuk crumble 511 untuk ayam boiler dan konsentrat 511 untuk ayam petelur dari PT. Charoen Pokphand.
Tabel Nutrisi Pakan
Ringkasan Gizi
Kal Lipid Karbohidrat Protein Serat (Max) Abu (Max) K (Min) % Air (Max) P (Min)
1000 5-8% 8% 30-32% 8% 32% 10% 12% 11%
Tingkat Kebutuhan konsumsi harian mencit adalah 5 gram/ 100 gram BB/ Individu (Ekor)/ Hari dan 15mL/ 100 gram BB/ Individu (Ekor)/ Hari. Pemberian pakan dilakukan secara ad libitum.
Pembuatan Larutan Pewarna GMB 0, 5%
Komposisi Pewarna Giemsa
Alat yang digunakan adalah pipet 10mL, erlenmeyer, mikropipet, dan gelas ukur. Bahan yang digunakan stock Giemsa dan PBS pH. 6. 5. Cara membuatnya adalah sebagai berikut:
Larutan giemsa stock didapatkan dari produksi Balai Laboratorium Kesehatan Hewan dan Kesmavet Provinsi Jambi sebanyak 100mL.
Pembuatan Larutan PBS pH 6. 5.
Larutan A: Timbang KH2PO4 sebanyak 9, 078 gram campur dengan aquades mencapai 1000mL.
Larutan B: Timbang Na2HPO42H2O sebanyak 11, 876 gram dan campurkan dengan aquades hingga mencapai 1000mL.
Ambil larutan A sebanyak 64 mL dan campurkan dengan larutan B sebanyak 36 mL, dan PBS pH 6. 5 siap digunakan. Untuk penyimpanan disimpan pada suhu refigerator.
Selanjutnya, campurkan giemsa stock dan PBS pH 6. 5 dengan perbandingan 1:9. Pembuatan larutan pewarna GMB 0, 5 % adalah dengan cara mencampurkan Giemsa 10% sebanyak 5 mL : 10 mL Methilen Blue 10% : 0, 5 mL Methanol 70% dingin. Larutan Pewarna disimpan pada suhu refrigerator dan batas penyimpanan larutan adalah selama 2 bulan pada suhu refigerator dan 1, 5 bulan pada suhu ruangan yang sejuk.

23901401771653
003
163639527749516630652774940012001527749500350138927749500231076527749500Desain Box Pencahayaan dan Kandang
14916151155702
002
253746019875570 cm
0070 cm
206311529210014859056769000272415136842500115824013874750020440651368425002310765168275000278701516827500026289015106650011391901529715002034540151066500
20948651492255
005
31902401016004
004
901065144780150 cm
00150 cm
533401905
35813974930002057404635400321564017970585 cm
0085 cm

2368554445015cm
0015cm

22726651733550026879551206560cm
0060cm
315848919240500280606517335500
13296901219201
001
11049082540025012655016540cm
0040cm

2052955-317540cm
0040cm

-89535119380Keterangan. 1. (Kandang); 2. (Termometer); 3. (Kasa); 4. (Tripleks tebal); 5. (Lampu).
00Keterangan. 1. (Kandang); 2. (Termometer); 3. (Kasa); 4. (Tripleks tebal); 5. (Lampu).

Tahapan Pengamatan Siklus Estrus
Isolasi Sel Ulas Vagina
Pegang ekor dan belakang leher mencit, angkat agak condong keatas
Masukkan pipet swab yang telah berisi NaCl Fisiologis sebanyak 5mL kedalam vagina mencit, ulangi selama 3 – 5 kali sampai cairan sangat keruh
Masukkan kedalam botol vial steril
Ulangi langkah 2 dan 3 sebanyak 5 kali
Lakukan langkah 3 dan tutup leher botol dengan karet penutup
Labelkan dan disimpan dalam suhu refrigerator pada suhu 4-5oC
Pembuatan Preparat dan Pewarnaan Ulas
Ambil sel yang telah diisolasi sebanyak 1 mikron dengan mikropipet
Tetesi pada slide mikroskop pada dua titik pengamatan
Ambil larutan pewarna GMB 5% sebanyak 0, 5 mikron dengan mikropipet
Tetesi larutan pewarna pada titik pertama sampel ulas
Kedua sampel ulas ditutup dengan cover glass
Pengamatan Slide Estrus
Slide yang telah dibuat tadi diamati dengan mikroskop trinokuler pada pembesaran 10×10 (sebagai data utama) dan 10 x 100 sebagai validasi sel yang telah diamati
Amati slide dengan metode sistematik terarah yaitu pengamatan dimulai dari titik kanan preparat, menuju titik kiri pengamatan, kemudian kebawah dan menuju titik kanan bawah kemudian keatas dan berhenti pada titik tengan slide.
Siklus yang terdeteksi dihitung jumlah selnya dengan menggunakan counter
Setelah itu didokumentasikan dan dicatat pada logbook pengamatan
Analisis Variansi (ANAVA) Panjang Siklus Estrus
Rata-rata panjang siklus per ulangan
Perlakuan Ulangan Hasil
P1 1 4,43
P1 2 3,90
P1 3 4,12
P2 1 3,59
P2 2 4,12
P2 3 3,68
P3 1 4,66
P3 2 4,29
P3 3 4,65
P4 1 3,47
P4 2 3,68
P4 3 3,81
P5 1 3,40
P5 2 3,42
P5 3 3,07
Tabel RAL panjang siklus pada masing-masing perlakuan
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
1 4,43 3,59 4,66 3,47 3,40
2 3,90 4,12 4,29 3,68 3,42
3 4,12 3,68 4,65 3,81 3,07
Setelah itu dihitung nilai N
N= Jumlah Perlakuan, Maka N=3 untuk semua perlakuan
Kemudian dihitung total per perlakuan.

Total P1= n1+n2+n3
= 4,43 + 3,90 + 4,12
= 12,45
Total P2= n1+n2+n3
= 3,59 + 4,12 + 3,68
= 11,39
Total P3= n1+n2+n3
= 4,66 + 4,29 + 4,65
= 13,60
Total P4= n1+n2+n3
= 3,47 + 3,68 + 3,81
= 10,97
Total P5= n1+n2+n3
= 3,40 + 3,42 + 3,07
= 9,89
Total seluruh perlakuan= Tp1 + Tp2 + Tp3 + Tp4 +Tp5
= 12,45 + 11,39 + 13,60 + 10,97 + 9,89
= 58,30
Total Kuadrat P1 = (12,45)2
=155,00
Total Kuadrat P2 = (11,39)2
= 129,67
Total Kuadrat P3 = (13,60)2
= 184,96
Total Kuadrat P4 = (10,97)2
= 120,34
Total Kuadrat P5 = (9,89)2
= 97,89
TSP= (58,30)2
= 3399,10
Setelah itu dihitung nilai rata-rata perlakuan
Rata-rata P1 = Tp1:N
= 12,45 : 3
= 4,15
Rata-rata P2 = Tp2:N
= 11,39 : 3
= 3,80
Rata-rata P3 = Tp3:N
= 13,60 : 3
= 4,53
Rata-rata P4 = Tp4:N
= 10,97 : 3
= 3,66
Rata-rata P5 = Tp5:N
= 9,89 : 3
= 3,30
Kemudian dihitung variasi perlakuan
Variasi P1= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,07
Variasi P2= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,08
Variasi P3= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,04
Variasi P4= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,03
Variasi P5= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,04
Ringkasan
Perlakuan Ulangan Total Rata-rata Variasi
P1 3 12,45 4,15 0,07
P2 3 11,39 3,80 0,08
P3 3 13,60 4,53 0,04
P4 3 10,97 3,66 0,03
P5 3 9,89 3,30 0,04
Faktor Koreksi (Fx)
Fx = TSP: s
= 3399,10 : 15
= 226,61
Nilai JKt, JKp, JKg
JKt= JKsp – Fx
= 229,82 – 226,61
= 3,21
JKp= (JKtp : u)-fx
= (687,88: 3) – 226,61
= 229,29 – 226,61
= 2,69
JKg= JKt – JKg
= 3,21 – 2,69
= 0,53
Nilai dB perlakuan, dB total dan dB galat
dB P= P-1
= 5-1
= 4
dB T= S – 1
= 15 – 1
= 14
dB G = dB T – dB P
= 14 – 4
= 10
Nilai KT perlakuan, KT galat
KTp= JKp : dB P
= 2,69 : 4
= 0,67
KTg= JKg : dB G
= 0,53 : 10
= 0,05
Nilai F
F= KTp : KTg
= 0,67 : 0,05
= 12,72
Nilai F tabel
Dx Pembilang = dBp
= 4
Dx Penyebut= dBg
= 10
?= 0,05, tingkat kesalahan 5 %
Taraf Kepercayaan= 95 %
Maka nilai Ftabel = 3,48
Tabel ANAVA
ANAVA Sumber Variasi JK dF KT Fhitung P-value Ftabel
Perlakuan 2,69 4 0,67 12,76 0,000612 3,48
Galat 0,53 10 0,05 Total 3,21 14        
Penarikan Kesimpulan
Fhitung ; Ftabel, maka H0 diterima.

Nilai pValue= p ; 0,05
Maka, Fotoperiode berpengaruh sangat signifikan secara nyata terhadap panjang siklus bedasarkan ANAVA, sehingga perlu dilakukan uji Lanjut.

Uji Lanjut Jarak Duncan
Tabel jarak rata-rata perlakuan dari yang terbesar sampai terkecil
Perlakuan Rata-rata
P3 4,53
P1 4,15
P2 3,80
P4 3,66
P5 3,30
Jarak pada masing-masing perlakuan
P3 P1 P2 P4 P5
4,53 4,15 3,80 3,66 3,30
P3 4,53 0,00 0,38 0,74 0,88 1,24
P1 4,15 0,00 0,35 0,49 0,85
P2 3,80 0,00 0,14 0,50
P4 3,66 0,00 0,36
P5 3,30 0,00
Alpha DMRT
? = KTgr=0,053=0,02= 0,13

Tabel Analisis Duncan dan JND (Jarak Normal Duncan)
JND didapat dari tabel Duncan
P 2 3 4 5
JND 3,15 3,30 3,37 3,43
JNT (Jarak Normal Perlakuan)
JNT= ? x JND
JNT 2= 0,13 x 3,15
= 0,417
JNT 3= 0,13 x 3,30
= 0,437
JNT 4= 0,13 x 3,37
= 0,446
JNT 5= 0,13 x 3,43
= 0,454
P 2 3 4 5
JND 3,15 3,30 3,37 3,43
JNT 0,417 0,437 0,446 0,454
Notasi
P3 P1 P2 P4 P5 Nt
4,53 4,15 3,80 3,66 3,30 A
P3 4,53 0,00 0,38 0,74 0,88 1,24 A
P1 4,15 0,00 0,35 0,49 0,85 B
P2 3,80 0,00 0,14 0,50 B
P4 3,66 0,00 0,36 C
P5 3,30 0,00 D
Tabel DMRT
Duncanabcd
Perlakuan N Subset
1 2 3 4
P5 3 3,2967 P4 3 3,6533 3,6533 P2 3 3,7967 3,7967 P1 3 4,1500 4,1500
P3 3 4,5333
Sig. ,086 ,462 ,089 ,068
Kesimpulan bahwa P5 berbeda nyata dengan semua perlakuan, kecuali P4, artinya, fotoperiode terang total mempengaruhi sangat signifikan secara nyata terhadap panjang siklus rata-rata mencit betina SW-MPF, sehingga semakin panjang durasi terang, maka panjang siklus akan semakin singkat.

Analisis Variansi (ANAVA) Jumlah Siklus Estrus
Rata-rata jumlah siklus per ulangan
Perlakuan Ulangan Hasil
P1 1 7,00
P1 2 8,00
P1 3 7,60
P2 1 8,67
P2 2 7,60
P2 3 8,80
P3 1 7,00
P3 2 7,40
P3 3 6,80
P4 1 9,00
P4 2 8,60
P4 3 8,00
P5 1 9,00
P5 2 9,00
P5 3 9,80
Tabel RAL jumlah siklus pada masing-masing perlakuan
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
1 7,00 8,67 7,00 9,00 9,00
2 8,00 7,60 7,40 8,60 9,00
3 7,60 8,80 6,80 8,00 9,80
Setelah itu dihitung nilai N
N= Jumlah Perlakuan, Maka N=3 untuk semua perlakuan
Kemudian dihitung total per perlakuan.

Total P1= n1+n2+n3
=7,00 + 8,00 + 7,60
= 22,60
Total P2= n1+n2+n3
=8,67 + 7,60 + 8,80
= 25,07
Total P3= n1+n2+n3
=7,00 + 7,40 + 6,80
= 21,20
Total P4= n1+n2+n3
=9,00 + 8,60 + 8,00
= 25,60
Total P5= n1+n2+n3
=9,00 + 9,00 + 9,80
= 27,80
Total seluruh perlakuan= Tp1 + Tp2 + Tp3 + Tp4 +Tp5
= 22,60 + 25,07 + 21,20 + 25,60 +27,80
= 122,27
Total Kuadrat P1 = (22,60)2
= 510,76
Total Kuadrat P2 = (25,07)2
= 628,5049
Total Kuadrat P3 = (21,20)2
= 449,44
Total Kuadrat P4 = (25,60)2
= 655,36
Total Kuadrat P5 = (27,80)2
= 772,84
TSP= (122,27)2
= 14949,95
Setelah itu dihitung nilai rata-rata perlakuan
Rata-rata P1 = Tp1:N
= 22,60 : 3
= 7,53
Rata-rata P2 = Tp2:N
= 25,07: 3
= 8,36
Rata-rata P3 = Tp3:N
= 21,20 : 3
= 7,07
Rata-rata P4 = Tp4:N
= 25,60 : 3
= 8,53
Rata-rata P5 = Tp5:N
= 27,80 : 3
= 9,27
Kemudian dihitung variasi perlakuan
Variasi P1= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,25
Variasi P2= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,43
Variasi P3= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,09
Variasi P4= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,25
Variasi P5= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,21
Ringkasan Perlakuan Ulangan Total Rata-rata Variasi
P1 3 22,60 7,53 0,25
P2 3 25,07 8,36 0,43
P3 3 21,20 7,07 0,09
P4 3 25,60 8,53 0,25
P5 3 27,80 9,27 0,21
Faktor Koreksi (Fx)
Fx = TSP: s
= 14949,95 : 15
= 996,66
Nilai JKt, JKp, JKg
JKt= JKsp – Fx
= 1008,13 – 996,66
= 11,47
JKp= (JKtp : u)-fx
= (3016,90 : 3) – 996,66
= 1005,63 – 996,66
= 8,97
JKg= JKt – JKg
= 11,47 – 8,97
= 2,49
Nilai dB perlakuan, dB total dan dB galat
dB P= P-1
= 5-1
= 4
dB T= S – 1
= 15 – 1
= 14
dB G = dB T – dB P
= 14 – 4
= 10
Nilai KT perlakuan, KT galat
KTp= JKp : dB P
= 8,97 : 4
= 2,24286
KTg= JKg : dB G
= 2,49 : 10
= 0,249393
Nilai F
F= KTp : KTg
= 2,24286 : 0,249393
= 8,993264
Nilai F tabel
Dx Pembilang = dBp
= 4
Dx Penyebut= dBg
= 10
?= 0,05, tingkat kesalahan 5 %
Taraf Kepercayaan= 95 %
Maka nilai Ftabel = 3,48
Tabel ANAVA
ANAVA Sumber Variasi SS df MS F P-value F crit
Perlakuan 8,97 4 2,24286 8,993264 0,002392 3,48
Galat 2,49 10 0,249393 Total 11,47 14        
Penarikan Kesimpulan
Fhitung ; Ftabel, maka H0 diterima.

Nilai pValue= p ; 0,05
Maka, Fotoperiode berpengaruh sangat signifikan secara nyata terhadap panjang siklus bedasarkan ANAVA, sehingga perlu dilakukan uji Lanjut
Uji Lanjut Jarak Duncan (DMRT) Jumlah Siklus Estrus
Tabel jarak rata-rata perlakuan dari yang terbesar sampai terkecil
Perlakuan Rata-rata
P5 9,27
P4 8,53
P2 8,36
P1 7,53
P3 7,07
Jarak pada masing-masing perlakuan
P5 P4 P2 P1 P3
9,27 8,53 8,36 7,53 7,07
P5 9,27 0 0,74 0,91 1,74 2,2
P4 8,53 0 0,17 1 1,46
P2 8,36 0 0,83 1,29
P1 7,53 0 0,46
P3 7,07 0
Alpha DMRT
? = KTgr=0,2493933=0,0831311= 0,2883247

Tabel Analisis Duncan dan JND (Jarak Normal Duncan)
JND didapat dari tabel Duncan
P 2 3 4 5
JND 3,15 3,30 3,37 3,43
JNT (Jarak Normal Perlakuan)
JNT= ? x JND
JNT 2= 0,2883247 x 3,15
= 0,908
JNT 3= 0,2883247 x 3,30
= 0,951
JNT 4= 0,2883247 x 3,37
= 0,972
JNT 5= 0,2883247 x 3,43
= 0,989
P 2 3 4 5
JND 3,15 3,30 3,37 3,43
JNT 0,908 0,951 0,972 0,989
Notasi
P5 P4 P2 P1 P3 9,27 8,53 8,36 7,53 7,07 P5 9,27 0 0,74 0,91 1,74 2,2 A
P4 8,53 0 0,17 1 1,46 A
P2 8,36 0 0,83 1,29 Ab
P1 7,53 0 0,46 Bc
P3 7,07 0 C
Tabel DMRT
Duncana,b
Perlakuan N Subset
1 2 3
P3 3 7,0667 P1 3 7,5333 7,5333 P2 3 8,3567 8,3567
P4 3 8,5333
P5 3 9,2667
Sig. ,279 ,071 ,059
Kesimpulan bahwa, P5 berbeda sangat nyata dengan semua perlakuan kecuali P4. Artinya, Semakin panjang durasi cahaya dalam siklus fotoperiode maka jumlah siklus mengalami kenaikan sangat signifikan secara nyata.

Analisis Variansi (ANAVA) Berat Badan Harian
Rata-rata berat badan per ulangan
Perlakuan Ulangan Hasil
P1 1 23,419
P1 2 23,981
P1 3 24,052
P2 1 23,441
P2 2 23,723
P2 3 23,587
P3 1 23,237
P3 2 23,877
P3 3 23,684
P4 1 23,011
P4 2 23,303
P4 3 22,923
P5 1 23,516
P5 2 23,974
P5 3 23,877
Tabel RAL berat badan pada masing-masing perlakuan
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
1 23,419 23,441 23,237 23,011 23,516
2 23,981 23,723 23,877 23,303 23,974
3 24,052 23,587 23,684 22,923 23,877
Setelah itu dihitung nilai N; N= Jumlah Perlakuan, Maka N=3 untuk semua perlakuan, Kemudian dihitung total per perlakuan.

Total P1= n1+n2+n3
= 23,419 + 23,981 + 24,052
= 71,45
Total P2= n1+n2+n3
= 23,441 + 23,723 + 23,587
= 70,75
Total P3= n1+n2+n3
= 23,237 + 23,877 + 23,684
= 70,80
Total P4= n1+n2+n3
= 23,011 + 23,303 + 22,923
= 69,24
Total P5= n1+n2+n3
= 23,516 + 23,974 + 23,877
= 71,37
Total seluruh perlakuan= Tp1 + Tp2 + Tp3 + Tp4 +Tp5
= 71,45 + 70,75 + 70,80 + 69,24 + 71,37
= 353,60
Total Kuadrat P1 = (71,45)2
= 5105,33
Total Kuadrat P2 = (70,75)2
= 5005,04
Total Kuadrat P3 = (70,80)2
= 5012,34
Total Kuadrat P4 = (69,24)2
= 4793,70
Total Kuadrat P5 = (71,37)2
= 5093,35
TSP= (353,60)2
= 125036,0017
Setelah itu dihitung nilai rata-rata perlakuan
Rata-rata P1 = Tp1:N
= 71,45 : 3
= 23,82
Rata-rata P2 = Tp2:N
= 70,75 : 3
= 23,58
Rata-rata P3 = Tp3:N
= 70,80 : 3
= 23,60
Rata-rata P4 = Tp4:N
= 69,24 : 3
= 23,08Rata-rata P5 = Tp5:N
= 71,37 : 3
= 23,79
Kemudian dihitung variasi perlakuan
Variasi P1= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,12
Variasi P2= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,02
Variasi P3= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,11
Variasi P4= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,04
Variasi P5= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,06
Ringkasan Perlakuan Ulangan Total Rata-rata Variasi
P1 3 71,45 23,82 0,12
P2 3 70,75 23,58 0,02
P3 3 70,80 23,60 0,11
P4 3 69,24 23,08 0,04
P5 3 71,37 23,79 0,06
Faktor Koreksi (Fx)
Fx= TSP: s
= 125036,0017 : 15
= 8335,73
Nilai JKt, JKp, JKg
JKt= JKsp – Fx
= 8337,48 – 8335,73
= 1,75
JKp= (JKtp : u)-fx
= (25010,36 : 3) – 8335,73
= 8336,788 – 8335,73
= 1,05
JKg= JKt – JKp
= 1,75 – 1,05
= 0,69
Nilai dB perlakuan, dB total dan dB galat
dB P= P-1
= 5-1
= 4
dB T= S – 1
= 15 – 1
= 14
dB G = dB T – dB P
= 14 – 4
= 10
Nilai KT perlakuan, KT galat
KTp= JKp : dB P
= 1,05 : 4
= 0,264
KTg= JKg : dB G
= 0,69 : 10
= 0,069
Nilai F
F= KTp : KTg
= 0,264 : 0,069
= 3,809923
Nilai F tabel
Dx Pembilang = dBp
= 4
Dx Penyebut= dBg
= 10
?= 0,05, tingkat kesalahan 5 %
Taraf Kepercayaan= 95 %
Maka nilai Ftabel = 3,48
Tabel ANAVA
ANAVA Sumber Variasi JK Df KT Fhitung P-value F tabel
Perlakuan 1,05 4 0,264 3,809923 0,039 3,48000
Galat 0,69 10 0,069 0,05 Total 1,75 14      
Penarikan Kesimpulan
Fhitung ; Ftabel, H0 diterima, sehingga Fotoperiode berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap berat badan harian bedasarkan ANAVA, sehingga perlu diuji lanjut.

Pvalue = p;0,05

Uji Lanjut Jarak Duncan (DMRT) Berat badan harian
Tabel jarak rata-rata perlakuan dari yang terbesar sampai terkecil
Perlakuan Rata-rata
P1 23,82
P5 23,79
P3 23,60
P2 23,58
P4 23,08
Jarak pada masing-masing perlakuan
P1 P5 P3 P2 P4
23,82 23,79 23,60 23,58 23,08
P1 23,82 0,00 0,03 0,22 0,24 0,74
P5 23,79 0,00 0,19 0,21 0,71
P3 23,60 0,00 0,02 0,52
P2 23,58 0,00 0,50
P4 23,08 0,00
Alpha DMRT
? = KTgr=0,069173=0,0230568= 0,151845

Tabel Analisis Duncan dan JND (Jarak Normal Duncan)
JND didapat dari tabel Duncan
P 2 3 4 5
JND 3,15 3,30 3,37 3,43
JNT (Jarak Normal Perlakuan)
JNT= ? x JND
JNT 2= 0,151845 x 3,15
= 0,48
JNT 3= 0,151845 x 3,30
= 0,50
JNT 4= 0,151845 x 3,37
= 0,51
JNT 5= 0,151845 x 3,43
= 0,52
P 2 3 4 5
JND 3,15 3,30 3,37 3,43
JNT 0,48 0,50 0,51 0,52
Notasi
P1 P5 P3 P2 P4 NT
23,82 23,79 23,60 23,58 23,08 P1 23,82 0,00 0,03 0,22 0,24 0,74 A
P5 23,79 0,00 0,19 0,21 0,71 A
P3 23,60 0,00 0,02 0,52 A
P2 23,58 0,00 0,50 A
P4 23,08 0,00 B
Tabel DMRT
Duncana,B
Perlakuan N Subset
1 2
P4 3 23,0790 P2 3 23,5837
P3 3 23,5993
P5 3 23,7890
P1 3 23,8173
Sig. 1,000 ,334
Kesimpulan. Fotoperiode 18 jam terang : 6 jam gelap, secara nyata mempengaruhi kenaikan signifikan terhadap berat badan harian rata-rata mencit betina SW-MPF.

Analisis Variansi (ANAVA) Pertambahan Bobot Tubuh
Rata-rata pertambahan bobot tubuh per ulangan
Perlakuan Ulangan Hasil
P1 1 1,419
P1 2 1,981
P1 3 2,052
P2 1 1,441
P2 2 1,723
P2 3 1,587
P3 1 1,237
P3 2 1,877
P3 3 1,684
P4 1 1,011
P4 2 1,303
P4 3 0,923
P5 1 1,516
P5 2 1,974
P5 3 1,877
Tabel RAL berat badan pada masing-masing perlakuan
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
1 1,419 1,441 1,237 1,011 1,516
2 1,981 1,723 1,877 1,303 1,974
3 2,052 1,587 1,684 0,923 1,877
Setelah itu dihitung nilai N; N= Jumlah Perlakuan, Maka N=3 untuk semua perlakuan.

Kemudian, dihitung total per perlakuan.

Total P1= n1+n2+n3
= 1,419 + 1,981 + 2,052
= 5,452
Total P2= n1+n2+n3
= 1,441 + 1,723 + 1,587
= 4,751
Total P3= n1+n2+n3
= 1,237 + 1,877 + 1,684
= 4,798
Total P4= n1+n2+n3
= 1,011 + 1,303 + 0,923
= 3,237
Total P5= n1+n2+n3
= 1,516 + 1,974 + 1,877
= 5,368
Total seluruh perlakuan= Tp1 + Tp2 + Tp3 + Tp4 +Tp5
= 5,452 + 4,751 + 4,798 + 3,237 + 5,368
= 23,604
Total Kuadrat P1 = (5,452)2
= 29,72
Total Kuadrat P2 = (4,751)2
= 22,57
Total Kuadrat P3 = (4,798)2
= 23,02
Total Kuadrat P4 = (3,237)2
= 10,48
Total Kuadrat P5 = (5,368)2
= 28,81
TSP= (23,604)2
= 557,16
Setelah itu dihitung nilai rata-rata perlakuan
Rata-rata P1 = Tp1:N
= 5,452 : 3
= 1,82
Rata-rata P2 = Tp2:N
= 4,751: 3
= 1,58
Rata-rata P3 = Tp3:N
= 4,798 : 3
= 1,60
Rata-rata P4 = Tp4:N
= 3,237 : 3
= 1,08
Rata-rata P5 = Tp5:N
= 5,368 : 3
= 1,79
Kemudian dihitung variasi perlakuan
Variasi P1= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,120
Variasi P2= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,020
Variasi P3= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,108
Variasi P4= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,040
Variasi P5= (?Xi-?2) : N
= 0,058
Faktor Koreksi (Fx)
Fx= TSP: s
= 557,16 : 15
= 37,1442
Nilai JKt, JKp, JKg
JKt= JKsp – Fx
= 38,89005 – 37,1442
= 1,746
JKp= (JKtp : u)-fx
= (114,595 : 3) – 37,1442
= 8336,788 – 8335,73
= 1,054
JKg= JKt – JKp
= 1,746 – 1,054
= 0,692
Nilai dB perlakuan, dB total dan dB galat
dB P= P-1
= 5-1
= 4
dB T= S – 1
= 15 – 1
= 14
dB G = dB T – dB P
= 14 – 4
= 10
Nilai KT perlakuan, KT galat
KTp= JKp : dB P
= 1,054 : 4
= 0,263534
KTg= JKg : dB G
= 0,692 : 10
= 0,069171
Nilai F
F= KTp : KTg
= 0,263534 : 0,069171
= 3,809923
Nilai F tabel
Dx Pembilang = dBp
= 4
Dx Penyebut= dBg
= 10
?= 0,05, tingkat kesalahan 5 %
Taraf Kepercayaan= 95 %
Maka nilai Ftabel = 3,48
Tabel ANAVA
ANAVA Sumber Variasi JK df KT Fhitung P-value Ftabel
Perlakuan 1,054 4 0,263534 3,809923 0,0392 3,48000
Galat 0,692 10 0,069171 0,05 Total 1,746 14        
Penarikan Kesimpulan
Fhitung ; Ftabel, H0 diterima, sehingga Fotoperiode berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap berat badan harian bedasarkan ANAVA, sehingga perlu diuji lanjut.

Pvalue = p;0,05
Uji Lanjut Jarak Duncan (DMRT) Berat badan harian
Tabel jarak rata-rata perlakuan dari yang terbesar sampai terkecil
Perlakuan Rata-rata
P1 1,817
P5 1,789
P3 1,599
P2 1,584
P4 1,079
Jarak pada masing-masing perlakuan
P1 P5 P3 P2 P4
1,817 1,789 1,599 1,584 1,079
P1 1,817 0,0000 0,0280 0,2180 0,2330 0,7380
P5 1,789 0,0000 0,1900 0,2050 0,7100
P3 1,599 0,0000 0,0150 0,5200
P2 1,584 0,0000 0,5050
P4 1,079 0,0000
Alpha DMRT
? = KTgr=0,0691713=0,023057= 0,151845

Tabel Analisis Duncan dan JND (Jarak Normal Duncan)
JND didapat dari tabel Duncan
P 2 3 4 5
JND 3,15 3,30 3,37 3,43
JNT (Jarak Normal Perlakuan)
JNT= ? x JND
JNT 2= 0,151845 x 3,15
= 0,2179
JNT 3= 0,151845 x 3,30
= 0,2283
JNT 4= 0,151845 x 3,37
= 0,2331
JNT 5= 0,151845 x 3,43
= 0,2373
p 2 3 4 5
JND 3,15 3,30 3,37 3,43
JNT 0,2179 0,2283 0,2331 0,2373
Notasi
P1 P5 P3 P2 P4 1,817 1,789 1,599 1,584 1,079 P1 1,817 0,0000 0,0280 0,2180 0,2330 0,7380 A
P5 1,789 0,0000 0,1900 0,2050 0,7100 A
P3 1,599 0,0000 0,0150 0,5200 A
P2 1,584 0,0000 0,5050 A
P4 1,079 0,0000 B
Tabel DMRT
Duncana,b
Perlakuan N Subset
1 2
P4 3 1,0790 P2 3 1,5837
P3 3 1,5993
P5 3 1,7890
P1 3 1,8173
Sig. 1,000 ,334
Kesimpulan. Fotoperiode P4 mempengaruhi pertambahan bobot badan secara nyata pada mencit betina SW-MPF dan secara signifikan mempengaruhi kenaikan pertambahan bobot badan harian rata-rata mencit betina SW-MPF
Dokumentasi Penelitian
356900716550700

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