KIBABII UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTISES AND PERFORMANCE

KIBABII UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTISES AND PERFORMANCE: A CASE OF THE ADMINISTRATION POLICE BUNGOMA COUNTY KENYA.

BELYNDAH SHITAKWA LIGARE
CONCEPT PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF HUMAN RESOURCE OF KIBABII UNIVERSITY.

JUNE, 2018.

DECLARATION
This research study is my original work and has not been presented to any other examination body. No part of this research should be reproduced without my consent or that of the Kibabii University.

Name: ___________________________Sign:__________________Date:_________

This research has been submitted for examination with the approval of University of Nairobi supervisor.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Glory to the Almighty God, for the life, strength and opportunity to undergo my study at Kibabii University, I wish to express my heartfelt appreciation to my project supervisor Dr……for his continuous guidance and encouragement throughout the entire process. I extend my thanks to my family and friends for always being there for me. I also give my sincere gratitude to my seniors at work place for allowing men time to study.

ABSTRACT
The intention of the study is to assess and also to break new grounds on the impact of human resource management practices on the performance of the Administration police. The main objective of the study is to determine how performance can be enhanced in the Administration police service as far as policing is concern. The study is to adopt purely qualitative approach and used both primary and secondary data. The primary data is to be collected across all ranks within the service. The target population is the administration police officers in different sub counties within Bungoma County. The simple stratified random sampling procedure to select a sample size of 50 respondents is to be used, representing 15% of the total population which is representative for academic purposes. The central research question is to be: “What is the influence of career development, promotion and performance appraisal on the performance of administration police? The general objective of study is to determine the impact of the above mentioned human resource practices on performance in Kenya.
DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
Career Development is the expression of commitment of the organization’s commitment to the continuous progression of the employees in order to maximize their contribution to the organization, realize potential with increased responsibility. This study shall examine the relationship between such progression and performance of the police.
Promotion is the framework that provides the opportunities to advance their ranks in accordance to the available opportunities.

Appraisal system concerns with the evaluation of an employee’s performance to reward or reprimand. In view of administration police officers working conditions, this research shall endeavor to find out the effect of the tool on police delivery.

Policies – Systems of codified decisions established by an organization
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
This chapter discusses the background information of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, the research objectives and research questions, assumptions and the justification of the study.
Background of the Study
All organizations be they business, educational or government are basically social systems. The people run these organizations. The functioning of these organizations depends on how people work. The human behaviour is caused and highly unpredictable. The human resources of an organization constitute the entire work force. Human Resource Management has responsibility for identifying, selecting, inducing the competent people, training them, facilitating and monitoring them to perform at high level of efficiency and providing mechanism to ensure that they maintain their affiliation with their organization. So administration police, within the National police service is not an exception. HRM is of utmost importance in a police department as it renders direct services to the society and is responsible for protection of members of the society. The police personnel, who are qualified, well trained, best motivated and lead by the competent superiors will improve the present work culture.

In many occasions the administration police have been condemned in the way they perform their duties. This was evident when concerns were raised by different groups on how the administration police, and by extension the National police service conducted themselves during and after 2007-2008 election when the violence rocked the country as result of the said election. The National police and more specifically the APS were accused of rampant police subjectivity and inefficiency in the execution of their mandate. This led to a focus shift to the possible ways of salvaging policing in Kenya. Most significantly was the formation of the retired judge Hon. Phillip Ramsey’s police reforms commission. Among many others, the commission recommended for urgent reforms in the police services with more emphasis on welfare, scheme of service, career development, promotion and structural realignment. It has emerged evident that a number of these have been implemented to some extent but the outcome does not befit the expectations more so to the APS.
A consensus has been developed world-wide over the importance of reforming the police sector to strengthen performance and improve on service delivery (Weisdurd, 2003). Human resource management (HRM) refers to the policies and practices involved in carrying out the
resource(HR)’ aspects of a management position including human resource planning, job analysis, recruitment, selection, orientation, compensation, performance appraisal, training and development, and labour relations (Dessler, 2007). HRM is composed of the policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitude, and performance (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, ; Wright, 2007).

With the increased complexity of the police role and the movement towards neighborhood policing, the nature of police work and police organization has become more complex and necessitates the importance of hiring and retaining high quality personnel (Roberg and Kuykendall, 1997). Policing is no longer a relatively simple task. Rather police officers roles in today’s democratic society are extremely significant and complex (Carter and Sapp, 1990).
The security sector is charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order hence preserve peace in the society. Broadly, this is executed by security officers; a major component of which is police officers.
Statement of the Problem
Human Resource (HR) practice is one of the key determining factors of the performance of employees in any organization in Kenya. A successful organization is one with workers who are able to deliver effectively to the customers’ demands. The employees cannot effectively perform unless they feel satisfied on different areas of the organization running. The organizations have been noted to have different performance level whereby it has been noted that there are some organization which are able to deliver effectively while the other organizations are not able to give the desired output. The concern has come on the ways in which mechanism can be put in place in regard to human resource practices to enhance high performance by administration police officers. The study identifies how reward may affect the employee performance in administration police. The need is there to evaluate the effect of career development, performance appraisal and promotion to the officers’ performance. The need created the necessity of the study to be carried out in order to come up with the ways in which performance of the administration police officers can be enhanced in order to have better service delivery and respond to the changing policing needs.
In the recent past there has been poor performance, high turnover and many cases of disciplinary issues amongst these officers in uniform. The poor performance sticks out strongly and is distinct from any other poor performance in any other sector because lives, especially of those at their most productive stage, are lost, (Maguire et al. 2007). Police reforms remain necessary in Kenya, and present a critical link to Vision 2030 realization. A police officer who works hard to achieve institutional goal needs to have his efforts rewarded so as to boost his morale. When an officer is less motivated, he lacks the willingness to work and self-drive.
Therefore this study examine the influence of Human Resource Practices on administration police performance; the case of Bungoma County, more specifically Career Development, Promotion Policy and performance appraisal in the administration police service.
Objectives of the study
General objective
The general objective of this research is to evaluate the effect that human resource practices have on the performance in Kenya.

Specific objective
To determine the effect of career development on administration police officer performance.

To assess the effect of promotion on performance of an administration police officer.

To examine the effect of performance appraisals on performance of an administration police officer.

Research questions:
What is the impact of career development on administration police officer performance?
What is the effect of promotion on performance of an administration police officer?
Do performance appraisals influence performance of an administration police officer?
Significance of the Study
This study will be of great significance to top level officers in the administration police service since it will highlight the major factors that affect employee performance leading to demoralization and hence poor performance. This will assist the management in the administration police service on how best to implement ways which can enhance performance and clean up the tainted image within the service.
If the recommendations which will be deduced from this study will be implemented, there will be likelihood to increase officers’ performance, reduce officers’ turnover which will lead to better and quality service delivery to the public, and also help make the service be more people friendly. The study will also be of great significance to future researchers since it will acts as a source of information on employee performance and this will enrich the literature review of studies to come.
The Scope of the Study

The study will be limited to administration police service within Bungoma County. The researcher will collect and analyze data on three variables namely: Career Development, Promotion and performance appraisal. The sample will be from each Sub County within the County.
Limitation of the study

The study will only be conducted in Bungoma County which has eleven sub counties; this is due to scarcity of resources. The study will not investigate other National police service units, but only the administration police service, with the assumption that administration police officers within this area have served in different areas and different counties within the country and that the length of service is homogeneous. The nature of the disciplined service may as well not allow the respondents to freely share information. The case study has also been limited to one, in order to set realistic targets for data collection and analysis.
Other factors, such as environmental factors for example having resources, information and support one needs to perform well are also critical to determine performance, but will not be looked into.

Conceptual Framework

Independent variables Dependent Variable
Career development

Performance

Promotion

Performance appraisal

The figure illustrates the dependent variables and the dependent variable.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
This chapter looks into the literature review of similar research studies, both theoretical and empirical. This helps orient the reader on some of the theories by different scholars on the research topic, and on what has been done by past researchers to address the research problem.
Theoretical Literature Review
This research is based on a number of theories. Some of the theories are as enumerated in this section
Herzberg’s Two-Factory Theory of Motivation
According to Herzberg (1959), a behavioral scientist, there are some job factors that result in satisfaction while there are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction. These two factors were categorized as Hygiene Factors or dissatisfiers and Motivational factors. Hygiene Factors are those that are essential for existence of motivation at the workplace. They do not necessarily lead to satisfaction but in their absence, there is dissatisfaction at the workplace. The existence of these factors pacifies the employees, therefore giving satisfaction. The hygiene factors, also known as maintenance factors are required so as to avoid dissatisfaction. They include salary/pay, organization policies that guide employees behavior, fringe benefits, like health care programs, physical working conditions which should be clean and safe and hygienic, and updated working equipment, employees’ status in the organization, interpersonal relations (between peers, superiors and subordinates) and job security, which the organization must provide for the employees. The motivation factors, (Herzberg, 1959) cannot be regarded as motivators, rather, they yield positive satisfaction. The motivational factors, also known as satisfiers, motivate the employees for superior performance, are involved in performing the job and employees indeed, find these factors intrinsically rewarding. The motivational factors include recognition; employees deserve to be praised and recognized for their accomplishments, sense of achievement: they should have a sense of achievement although this depends on the job; responsibility. Employees must hold themselves responsible for the work and retain accountability. Final motivational factor is meaningfulness of the work, the tasks themselves should be meaningful, interesting and challenging for the employee to perform and get motivated. The two factor theory is not free from bias as it is based on the natural reaction of employees. When asked about the sources of their satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work, they will more often blame dissatisfaction on salary structures, policies, peer relations, etc. Employees will also give credit to themselves for the satisfaction factor at work.
Equity Theory
According to this theory, individuals are motivated by a sense of fairness in their interactions. Moreover, our sense of fairness is a result of the social comparisons we make. Specifically, we compare our inputs and outcomes with other people’s inputs and outcomes. We perceive fairness if we believe that the input-to-outcome ratio we are bringing into the situation is similar to the input-to-outcome ratio of a comparison person, or a referent. Perceptions of inequity create tension within us and drive us to action that will reduce perceived inequity (Adams, J. S. 1965). Equity is determined by comparing one’s input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of a referent. When the two ratios are equal, equity exists. The referent may be a specific person as well as a category of people. Referents should be comparable to us; otherwise the comparison is not meaningful. It would be pointless for a student worker to compare himself to the CEO of the company, given the differences in the nature of inputs and outcomes. Instead, individuals may compare themselves to someone performing similar tasks within the same organization or, in the case of a CEO, a different organization.
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
Vroom (1964) expectancy theory is an approach that many believe goes far in explaining how people are motivated. This theory holds that employees will be motivated to perform tasks in order to achieve a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they believe and have confidence in their actions as helping them achieve the goal. This is, in a sense, a modern expression that Martin Luther observed centuries ago when he said “Everything that is done in the world is done in hope”. According to Vroom, an employee’s performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities.
This theory also assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives and whose purpose is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. An employee’s performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities (Vroom, 1964). The expectancy theory of motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavior over the other. Vroom uses Expectancy (effort which leads to performance), Instrumentality (performance leading to outcome) and Valence (outcome leading to reward) as the variables to account for this theory. He goes ahead to define expectancy as the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance. Expectancy will typically be affected by availability of the resources required to perform a task, possession of the right skills to do the job and having the necessary support from a supervisor or someone in authority, to get the job done. Expectancy theory, whose final outcome is motivation, is a product of expectancy, instrumentality and valence (Dörnyei Z ; Ushioda E, 2013). Force of Motivation is a guiding force of specific behavioral alternatives, which are recommended, in case individuals opt or select various behaviors. The apparent probability that effort will, almost naturally, lead to good performance is the Expectancy. Some of the variables that will affect an employee’s perception of expectancy include, but are not limited to, how efficient one feels they are or self-efficacy, perceived control and goal difficulty. Past experience, self-confidence, and the perceived difficulty of the performance goal are some of the parameters that one can use to measure the expectancy levels of their desired performance. The range of expectancy can be from zero to one. When an employee’s expectancy is at zero, the individual’s biased probability is that his act may not yield results. Expectancy is also a person’s estimation of the possibility that effort will lead to successful performance. This belief is, similarly, based on the confidence a person has in his/her own capacities to bring skills to bear and influence outcomes. When an employee believes that if they perform well, then a valued outcome will be received; that is instrumentality. It simply means “what is in it for me, if I do the job well?” Will I be rewarded or how will I benefit? Instrumentality is affected by how well one understands the rules of the game; it is important to have a clear understanding of the relationship between performance and expected outcomes, trust in the decision makers on who gets rewarded, and transparency of the entire process of deciding who has the best outcomes and therefore, should be rewarded. Valence refers to the value the individual personally places on rewards. Valence is also the importance that an individual puts on an expected outcome. The person must prefer attaining the outcome for the valence to be positive. An outcome is positively seen when the person chooses to attain the positive outcome by giving it more attention and detail, instead of not attaining it”.There can be a discrepancy between the anticipated satisfaction from an outcome (valence) and the actual satisfaction from an outcome. For example, if an employee loves money and expects financial/ monetary rewards after attaining a goal, then they may not appreciate being offered time off or even a holiday from work as a motivator. Expectancy theory generally is supported by empirical evidence and is one of most commonly used theories of motivation in the workplace (Campbell and Pritchard, 1976; Heneman and Schwab, 1972; Mitchell and Biglan, 1971).

Empirical Review
There is evidence, from empirical research revolving around HR practices and performance, that the HR practices have impact and do count when it comes to measuring performance in organisations (Patterson, 1997; Guest, 2000; Thompson 2002; Purcell, 2003). Huselid (1995) pointed out that although organizations may not be able to sustain a competitive advantage because these practices are imitable (Barney, 1991), many organizations are not currently using these more effective practices. Pfeffer (1994), however, pointed out that the implementation of these practices is not always an easy task. Therefore, he argued that it is unlikely that organizations can quickly or easily imitate the practices of the best organizations. Findings of the studies were significant on impact of HRM practices on performance of employees. Organisations that have succeeded have record of having high regard for their HR practices as a crucial factor that directly affects the employees’ performance, and in a bigger picture, the organisation’s performance. Using banks as their case study, Richard and Johnson (2001) sought to find out, by using different performance variables, if strategic HR practice had any effect on performance. One of their major findings was that strategic HR practices are directly related to employee turnover and hence, did impact on their performance. Employment security and job descriptions contribute uniquely to product/service performance, whereas profit sharing contributes uniquely to financial performance. While measuring HR practice against organization performance, it is important to differentiate between policies and practices/ procedures, (Wright and Boswell, 2002: 263). Policies are the organisation’s stated intentions regarding its various employee management activities, whereas practices/ procedures are the actual, functioning, observable activities as experienced by employees. Van den Berg and colleagues (1999: 302) noted that an organization may have many written down HR policies and top management may even believe it is practiced. In most instances, however, these policies and beliefs are sometimes meaningless until the individual perceives them as something important to them or the organizational well-being. Actual HR practices are applied by line managers on a daily basis and this has positive impact on employees’ perception about HRM practices applied to them (Purcell and Kinnie, 2007). The successful implementation or failure of HRM practices depends on the skills of the managers (Guest, 2011). The effectiveness of HR practices is realized when employees act in ways that are needed for implementing strategies and achieving various business objectives.
Victor and Jonathan, (2013) conducted a research on training and manpower development, employee productivity and organizational performance in Nigeria using First Bank as a case study. The study used qualitative approach since the subject matter focused on human behavior. The study used primary data. The study applied structured questionnaires to a sample size of 75 drawn by simple random sampling. The data generated was statistically evaluated. The findings of the study show that majority (70%) of the respondents agreed that training and manpower development has enhanced their efficiency and job productivity. Frankling (2014) carried out a study to measure the impact of training and development on employee performance using ESCON Consulting Limited as a case study. The findings revealed that working conditions and a lack of resources affect the training and development of employees. It is recommended that certain areas be improved, that is, management support, the provision of feedback to employees and the conducting of employee training on a continuous basis. The findings showed that this would improve employee performance in the organization. Ashikhube (2013) carried out a study to establish the effects of dimension or scope of training and how they affected/impacted on employee’s work performance. His study was carried out at, and data collected from employees of Mumias Sugar Company in Kakamega County. After analysis of the data collected, the results showed the presence of positive and significant effect between the assessment of training needs and the performance of employees at Mumias Sugar Company. The contents of the Training, which were also evaluated during the study, were also found to positively influence the employee performance in Mumias Sugar Company Limited and the same findings also applied to training evaluation and employee performance. Training was found to be a catalyst of bringing-up-to-date the workers’ skills, leading to commitment, well-being and a feeling of belonging and hence, directly strengthening the organisations competitiveness (Action and Golden, 2002).
Happiness & Michael (2014) also found out in their research work that there is affirmative relationship between training & staff development and organizational effectiveness. The study sought to determine the nature of the relationship between training/development and organizational effectiveness. The study concluded that effective training is an investment in the human resources of an organization, with both immediate and long range returns. James & Daniel (2014) conducted a research on the effects of training on health workers performances in Siaya County, Kenya. The general objective of the study was to evaluate if training impacted on the performance of staff, in any way, in the public health institutions in Kenya. The target population was the doctors, clinical officers, nurses and subordinate staff serving in public health facilities within Siaya County. The data was collected through questionnaires.
The findings were indicative of a strong positive relationship between training of employees and performance. Falola, Osibanjo & Ojo (2014) conducted a research on value of training and development on performance of employees and the organization competitiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. The results were indicative of a strong relationship that existed between training and development, employees’ performance and competitive advantage. Summary of the findings brought out a strong relationship between the dependent variable that was tested and the independent construct. This research, however, was based on the banking industry which is very dynamic in nature. Employees are trained on coming up with new products to compete in the market. It is thus important to carry out a similar study in a relatively rigid environment whereby, employees are trained on the everyday aspect of the job. This will help identify if they are perfecting their skills, and the impact that they have in their performance.
There are various ways that employees get rewarded for their performances, and the most common one is through promotions (Mone, E. M., & London, M. 2014). Promotion can be defined as the movement of a person to higher-level position in an organisation (Mondy & Noe, 2005). It is an opportunity provided by the organization towards its employees and normally only those who achieved the standard set by the organization may be promoted. Organizations reward highly productive workers with promotions, thus creating an inventive for other workers to exert greater efforts. Promotion usually gives employees a sense of job security, which in turn leads to improved performances in the workplace (Alam, 2015). In a study about analyzing promotion as a motivation factor among police in Uganda, Ddamurila (2004), reported that 52% of the current officers at one time earned a promotion in their job, and that was fulfilling enough to remain committed to the service. However, promotion was not the sole reason that made them to continue working in the police service. 60% of the police stated that lack of alternate employment and job security was some of the other reasons. Only 3.4% stayed at the job because of the benefits that come with promotions. Hence, there is need to replicate this research in an environment whereby, there exist other job opportunities. The study in Uganda consisted of both secondary and primary sources whereby, 20 questionnaires distributed to officers working in the Uganda Police Force. It is thus, necessary to carry out a similar research using a single data source to ensure that results are consistent. A research was carried out by Christine Godwin Peters (2014) on impact of promotion to employee performance. The case study was on Dar-es-Salaam City council with the following variables: To examine the implementation of promotion procedures, positive impact of promotion to the individual employees and organization performance; to determine customers’ satisfaction level with performance of the council in service delivery and to identify the factors that hinder effective implementation of promotion practice to employees of Dar-es-Salaam city council. The researcher claimed that the review of promotion identified a range of factors that have been shown to be consistently linked to employees’ performance. These include motivation, remuneration, job satisfaction, good relationship, age and education, where the respondents recorded higher percentages. According to the researcher, it was evident that the implementation of promotion practice was faced with challenges such as budget constraints, delayed salaries and training opportunities as it was recorded by respondents. The research accepted that there is a positive relationship between promotion and employee performance, (Peter, 2014). According to a study by Ferrin & Kurt (2003), intrinsic motivators such as professional travel, as opposed to extrinsic motivators such as cash, appear to lead to greater intrinsic motivation, job enrichment, and involvement in professional activities. So teachers who select the professional travel rewards are motivated than select the cash (Larry, 1989). The study was intended to examine the effects that income and pay satisfaction have upon employees across different structural settings. Specifically, the relationship between income and over time for professionals is significantly higher than that obtained for clerical workers. These data challenge the common assumption that intrinsic considerations are necessarily more important for generating positive work attitudes and behaviors among professionals. In fact, for pay satisfaction, the correlations are stronger for lower status occupations (Cohen & Gattiker, 1994). Rewards had a positive impact on subjects’ task performance. It was also found that feedback interacts with choice and with rewards to produce a significant difference in performance. Employee who has rewards choice and feedback right their performance is high. So employees who have no right to select a reward and provide feedback performance is low (Steve & Luthans, 1992). If the very skilled employees are not motivated to perform, then their effectiveness is likely to be partial.
The Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research (2011) carried out a study, on employees of both public and private sector organizations in Pakistan. The research was to study whether compensation, performance evaluation and promotion, had any impact on employee performance. These variables were identified as the collective HR practices, which were found to be common and applicable in both sectors, i.e. private and public. Interesting outcomes were revealed and were indicative of two of the independent variables, i.e. compensation and performance evaluation, have a positive and significant relation with employee performance in both public and private sector organizations of Pakistan. Strangely, promotion did not have any significant association with the dependent variable, which was employee performance, in both sectors and there were reasons for it. In most instances, promotions were found to be unclear and vague and were being awarded without any criteria or merit; promotional activities were also found to be vague and unclear. The researcher felt that outcomes of such activities are often not disclosed. The researcher concluded that there is a direct connection employees’ performance which is comparable to organizational performance which, to economic growth in the long run. Secondly, employers are under obligation, by Law, to practically evaluate performance, compensate employees maximally and promote the hard working and deserving workers (Raja, 2011). There are however, mixed reactions on promotions as a determinant to great performance on employees. However, it is evident that most researchers associate promotion as a form of reward towards employee satisfaction, whereas, from studies carried out, it is a secondary determinant to performance of employees. The effect of HRM on performance depends on the workers’ responses to the practices, so the impact will move in direction of the perception of HRM practices by the employee. (Wood 1999 & Guest 2002) has stressed that a competent, committed and highly involved work force is the one required for best implementation of business strategy.
Performance Appraisal is a consistent, periodic, and an independent rating of an employee’s performance in matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job (Flippo, 1984). Performance appraisals can be done either annually or semi-annually for purposes of monitoring performance. The appraisals help in systematically evaluating the performance of an employee against assigned tasks. Performance appraisal has become a-must-have tool/ process in many organizations because outcomes of such appraisals are useful in decision making in matters of employees’ promotions, merit salary increments, transfers and separations, identification of training and development needs, among other things. Performance appraisal may also, overall, increase employees’ commitment and satisfaction in an organization (Wiese and Buckley, 1998). In some organizations, pay increments are based on performance appraisals, which make them objective and motivating especially to high performing and results oriented employees. In a study about the effects of human resource practices on employees’ performance in the Pakistani’s Telcom sector, Marwat, Qureshi & Ramay (2009), reported that among other HR practices, performance appraisal was positively correlated with employee performance at 0.47, which indicates a strong correlation. 60 questionnaires were distributed over to employees in the telecom sector, whereby the response rate stood at 96%. Hassan (2016) also concluded that performance appraisal is positively correlated to employee performance. The study was also conducted in Pakistan, whereby 68 respondents were interviewed. Pearson correlation was used in measuring the correlation of the various HR practices with employee performance. Performance appraisal had a 0.79 correlation with employee performance. The study concluded that HRM practices have an influence over employee performance (Hassan, 2016). Several studies have recommended and emphasized on the importance of defining, planning and managing performance, with the employees, before evaluating the same (Pareek and Rao, 2006). This will ensure that goals are initially set and agreed upon, and it is against these goals that performance will be measured. Many organisations have been forced to change their practice from being reactive to being proactive, implying that organisations are now more proactive than reactive. What this simply means is that organisations now practice proactive performance management as opposed to reactive performance appraisals. This has been found to be necessary in boosting productivity and improving organization performance, while enabling the organization to have a competitive advantage in the highly economically competitive environment (Nayab, 2011). Performance management encompasses planning and appraising performance, and thereafter, sharing outcomes or giving feedback to the employees.
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction
This chapter provides a systematic description of the research methodology to be undertaken in the study. The methodology used in the research study included research design, target population and its sample size and the method and procedures of data collection.
Research Design
According to Ogula (2005), research design is a plan or strategy of carrying out investigation with an aim of obtaining responses to research questions and control variance. Also, a study design is the action plan the researcher embraces for answering the research questions and it sets up the framework for study or is the blueprint of the researcher (Kerlinger, 1973).
Descriptive research design seeks to describe phenomena with the ultimate desire to answer the research question. It is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way, in order to get a general overview about the subject of investigation. The researcher used descriptive design with individual survey of factors relating to problems and explored the status of the factors used. The variables are training and development, promotion and performance appraisal.
The study is to adopt a descriptive research design which will enable the researcher to gather information from the target population.
Target population
According to Saleemi (2008), population in statistics means the total number of items in a specified field of inquiry. The target population is within Bungoma County, with about 1318 administration police officers. Administration Police officers are found in all the eleven sub counties namely; Bungoma central, Bungoma south, Bungoma north, Bungoma west, Webuye east, Webuye west, Cheptais, Mount Elgon, Kimilili, Bumula and Tongaren: The target population in each sub county for this study is shown in the table below.

S/no Areas Target population (number of administration police officers) Percentage (%)
Bungoma central 111 8.4
Bungoma south 102 7.7
Bungoma north 97 7.4
Bungoma west 103 7.8
Webuye east 89 6.8
Webuye west 105 8.0
Cheptais 115 8.7
Mt Elgon 240 18.2
Kimilili 131 9.9
Bumula 119 9.0
Tongaren 106 8.0
Total 1318 100
Sample and Sampling methods
A sample is a smaller group or sub-group obtained from the accessible population (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). This subgroup will be carefully selected so as to be representative of the whole population with the relevant characteristics. A sample can also be defined as that part of the population which will be selected for observation and analysis. Each member or case in the sample is referred to as subject, respondent or interviewee.
Sampling is a technique or process of choosing a sub-group from a population to participate in the study (Ogula, 2005). It is the process of randomly selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individuals selected represent, in all aspects, the larger group from which they were selected. Statistical technique will be used to arrive at a sample size per Sub County, as shown in the table below. This method will enable the researcher to source information from different people who will be representatives of the larger population.
The sample frame of the study included a representative sample of the administration police officers working within Bungoma County.
S/no. Sub counties Target population(number of administration police officers) Sample size Percentage (%)
Bungoma central 111 22 8.3
Bungoma south 102 20 7.6
Bungoma north 97 19 7.2
Bungoma west 103 20 7.6
Webuye east 89 18 6.8
Webuye west 105 21 8.0
Cheptais 115 23 8.7
Mt Elgon 240 48 18.2
Kimilili 131 26 9.9
Bumula 119 24 9.1
Tongaren 106 21 8.0
Total 1318 262 100
Data Collection Instruments
The researcher used self-administered questionnaires for data collection. According to Fraenken & Wallen (2000), a questionnaire is a list of questions that each participant in a survey answers in writing or by making answers on an answer sheet. The questionnaires allowed for easy collection of data within a short period of time. Questionnaires will consist of closed questions which will be sent to respondents to seek information from them and later tabulated and subjected to a statistical manipulation under the study. Closed questionnaire enhanced easy analysis of the data. The respondents will be required to select the answer that best described their response.
The questionnaires will be structured into two parts, first part requiring respondents to provide demographic information, while the second part will comprise of questions on the variables and how they affected their performance. The questions in the questionnaire were preceded by a short introduction section assuring respondents of confidentiality.
Reliability
Reliability is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study are repeatable. It is the point at which a research instrument yields consistent results or data after repeated trials. If a researcher runs a test to a subject twice and gets the same score on the second administration as the first test, then the instrument is reliable (Mugenda & Mugenda, 1999). A construct composite reliability co-efficient (Cronbach alpha) of 0.6 or above, for all the constructs will be considered to be adequate for this study. The acceptable reliability coefficient is 0.6 and above (Carmines & Zeller, 1997). Cronbach Alpha will be used to test the reliability of the research instrument
Data Collection Procedure
The data will be collected through questionnaires. The researcher will print enough questionnaires and distribute to the respondents who will have been identified.
Data Analysis and Presentation
After gathering data, all questionnaires will be adequately checked for reliability and clarification. The data will then be analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Descriptive methods such as mean, median, standard deviations, and variance will be employed and data presented in the form of frequency distribution tables and charts that facilitated description and explanation of the study findings.
Ethical Considerations
During a research study, and for purposes of gathering the most accurate feedback from respondents, they must feel protected to alleviate the fear of being identified. Participants in this research will do so, on a voluntary basis.
Informed Consent:
Informed consent is the right of every individual when participating in research (Couchman and Dawson, 1990). Therefore, it is not an aspect that can be ignored or denied to the individual. During this study, no respondent will be requested to sign consent.
Confidentiality
All information collected via the questionnaires will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Chapter Summary
This chapter provides the research methodology to be applied in the study of human resource practices and performance of administration police officers; a case study of Bungoma county. Data collection will be done through self-administered questionnaires, which will be distributed by the researcher. Data collected through the questionnaires will be analyzed and presented using tables, charts and graphs.

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