INTRODUCTION Explaining ‘Social Inclusion’

INTRODUCTION
Explaining ‘Social Inclusion’, ‘Disability’ and their relativeness
People with disability comprises of 15% of the global population. Barriers that results in social inclusion can be either environmental or attitude based but are developed and molded by the society. It is demanded from all the stake holders to develop harmonious and inclusive environment for disable persons.
At present, it is demanded from the policymakers, families and other representatives of people who possess some kind of intellectual and developmental disorder to include them in the mainstream of social network. Therefore, ‘social inclusion’ of a disable person can happen if it fulfill these three conditions. First, a disable person should be able to feel the essence of being the part of a defined society for which they contribute and receive assistance from. Secondly, the person is entitled to performing a valued social role. The third condition being the amount of trust and appreciation they are bestowed upon while fulfilling their required role.
Community involvement of people with disability consider leisure activities like hobbies, arts and sports, political and public accomplishments, productive work such as education or employment, accessibility to the consumption of goods and services and participation in religious and cultural activities.
The United States had meticulously defined ‘disability’ in its Equality Act of 2010. The Act refers to all those characteristics which exhibit mental or physical impairment that adversely effect upon the person’s ability in carrying out his normal routine work. The resulting effect is deemed negative and is substantial and chronic in existence. (ACAS)
Factors that generally promote social exclusion of disable persons
It is believed that there have developed certain norms and conditions in societies that tend to isolate the disable person from participating in communal programs. It is therefore the threads of social principles that wove the web of segregation for these incapacitate people.
Social Taboos. Lack of attachment and confining them to their homes
People with intellectual and physical disability are often made to feel miserable owing to the negative attitudes and behavior of people around them. Furthermore, disable people are made to opt for segregated activities as community participation leads them towards hostile experiences. These segregated activities confine the disable people to their homes with only attachment from their families and some other sheltered workshops.
Similarly different types of communities offer different challenges for the disable persons. The nature of these challenges varies from urban to rural and from heterogeneous to homogenous societies. These challenges play a key role in enabling a disable person from engaging wholeheartedly in social participation.
Lack of opportunities
Costs of providing benefits
Discrimination which causes the disruption in social balance
Discrimination is one of the core reasons which causes the exclusion of disable persons from the mainstream of society. Direct discrimination involves activities such as withholding jobs offers, avoid promoting or training, conceding them upon poorer recruitment terms and denying them their contractual benefits. Another form of discrimination which a disable person deals with is the indirect discrimination. This often involves the unintended denial of certain reserved characteristics to the disadvantage of the disable person when compared in a larger company of people.(ACAS). Harassment is another type of discrimination mostly faced by disable persons. This includes activities that range from bullying and insulting to asking them inappropriate or obtrusive questions and tagging them with humiliating nicknames. These types of discriminations lead to the physical and mental victimization of the disable person.

EXAMPLES OF PERSONS WHO OVERCAME DISABILITY
In many countries, the concept of disability is directly linked to the ‘incompetence to do work’. However, there are a variety of people who have challenged this idea and had come out with marvelous works of mass productivity. Not all of these notable names had strong socio economic support yet, they were able to throw the shackles of disability and proved their mettle.
Helen Keller
Keller was nineteen months old when she was hit by an unknown rare illness which had left her being deaf and blind. Keller with utmost assistance from her private tutor named Anne Sullivan who taught her the art of reading by a finger spell. It took her twenty five years to be able to speak in a way so that it could be understood by non-signers. After mastering this skill there was no looking back for her. She began to work for the betterment of disable persons, fought for the rights of women’s rights and also participated in the women’s suffrage movement. She founded the Helen Keller International in 1915 for treating blindness and malnutrition issues worldwide. In her writings and speeches, Keller had demanded for revolution rather than reformation. Her socialist values in the era of World War I paved way for the protection of conspicuous workers from imprisonments and deportation.
Stephen Hawking
In 1963, when Stephen Hawking was twenty one years old he was diagnosed of Lou Gehrig’s disease known as the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). It was the onset of a gradual motor neuron disease which had paralyzed him completely within a short span of time. It was predicted by the doctors that he had utmost two more years to live his life. It can be said that Hawking fought to change his destiny and after several decades of that prediction, Stephen had continued to unfold the mysteries of our colossal universe. Though Hawking remained bounded to wheelchair for his entire life and relied on a hi-tech electronic voice system yet he had made brought about revolution in the study of black holes, cosmology and physics. Hawking also had
the honours of being the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and was also the Director of Center of Cosmology at the University of Cambridge.

No family but his social inclusion made him to lead and inspire generations on the cosmological sciences.
Aron Lee Ralston
Lee Ralston besides being a backwoodsman and an influential speaker is a mechanical engineer by profession. In 2003 he had met an accident which set the course for his services for the disable persons. The accident occurred while he was on his expedition where he had been slipped and trapped for six days during canyoneering in Southeastern Utah. He had his one arm crushed by a chockstone boulder and Ralston by using his blunt utility knife had chopped down his arm in order to set himself free. He then made his way up by climbing a sixty five foot steep cliff in search of a safe zone. However, this unfortunate event did not barricade him from perusing his passion and dreams. Since then, Ralston had had often gone to the same place of Bluejohn Canyon and had also participated in 2008 in a climbing expedition in the mountains of Argentina. He had also become the first person who had climbed all the fifty nine ranked (SEE APPROPRIATE REFERENCE WIKEPEDIA) Colorado’s ‘forteeners’ in solitary in winter. Commenting upon the need of support of his family members, Ralston had commented that it was the essential and crucial need of freedom, love and connection that had given him the strength to come out from the trapped Canyon.
Nick VujicicNick Vujicic was born with a rare condition known as Phocomelia which devoid the victim of his limbs. Inspite of a continuous struggle for survival and able to manage everyday chores, Vujicic eventually graduated from high school and then from college. After having suffered depression and mental victimization, he began to advocate on behalf of people with disabilities. He began to aspire people by sharing with them the tales of what he had gone through. His motivational talks gave the disable persons a ray of hope, courage and determination. At present, he is one of the most prominent evangelist and a successful motivational speaker. He has taken up the challenge to combat bulling and make the disable believe upon their strengths and abilities. Anser Abbas
Anser Abbas is a full time journalist in Islamabad. He had left his home town situated in the northern areas of Pakistan to escape suicide attacks and violence. It was in one such attack that Abbas had lost both of his arms and his twenty one of extended family members had embraced martyrdom. His spirits to fight for justice and peace did not flatter after this incident. He had explained in an interview that he had consoled himself by letting go of what cannot be undone. He had always remained optimistic towards life and had faith in the Almighty.
Abbas had already acquired a degree in journalism and mass communications. He decided to make use of this degree and thus adopted the profession of journalism to escape misery and haunted memories of the past. His artificial arms did not work well so Abbas decided to use his toes for computer typing and writing collected reports. At the same time, he extended his services to an NGO in order to help disable persons and broaden the spectrum of establishing peace and harmony in the country. As according to him these essential attributes of living can never be imposed upon but will only function if promoted with devotion.
The purpose of briefly introducing these people is ———–.
OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS
Forming National Policies (Role of State)
It is the responsibility of the State to pave way for the recruitment, vocational training and some others schemes that may include certain compensations for workers who had suffered an injury or have acquired a recent disability. The sole concern of state policy makers is to address the fundamental rights of these persons. It is due to the blatant lack in legislation formation that leads the deprivation of disable citizenry their full social and economic participation. It is also deemed upon the states to transfer their discourse to empathy rather than being sympathetic towards the disable persons. The states is bound to provide them with a diverse spectrum in social participation irrespective of the nature of their disability.
The delay in implementation of the state’s policies is mainly caused by political parties seeking gains from the delay or by the insincere support for social justice. Another lack in implementation is caused by absence of by-laws and similar connotations. Let’s consider the example of Pakistan in this case. Pakistan has continued to form legislation on safeguarding the rights of disable persons. These are the Disable Person’s Ordinance of 1981, National Policy for Persons with Disability of 2002, National Plan of Action for Persons with Disability of 2006, Special Citizen’s Act of 2008 and Special Citizen’s (Right to Concessions in Movement) Act of 2009. The recent most development in the country on safeguarding the rights of disable persons has been put forward by the Sindh Assembly. The bill had been passed on May 25, 2018 and it promises to deliver these people a decent life full of participation in the educational, social, and cultural spheres without any discernment. The bill also makes promises of providing educational and vocational training and rehabilitation services. However, these measures can only be appreciated when they are practically implemented and bring positive vibes of change for the disable people.
Setting up of Organizations for disable persons (Mention SADF, giving them jobs, role model for other institution JOBS/WORK)
The United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities tend to focus on eradicating discrimination against disable persons.
It is widely believed that the positive results of some small scale organizational change fails to promote organizational system change on a wider scale. The results are doomed to a failure owing to the in part confusion of major stake holders who fail to decipher the true content and meaning of social inclusion of disable people.
Organization supportive system for the disable person include all those social institutions within the community such as schools, law enforcement agencies, employment centers and religious places. It is believed that positive organizational structures and principles tend to strengthen the effectiveness of a disable person’s participation in the social network. It is also imperative upon these organizations to raise advocacy movements which tend to demand the rights of these individuals and grant them social justice. These groups also need to demand from States the need to prioritize reforms on these neglected issues to use the label of human rights to shift the balance of power from global politics to individual respect and rights.
The emerging network of Trade Unions:
At present, trade unions are also promoting the rights of disable persons by working on various disability issues. Besides providing the disable people decent work, these trade unions also tend to provide social justice and focus on creating inclusive environment for these people. The role of these trade unions differ from developed to developing countries. In developed countries these trade unions tend to interact with the established legislative structures regarding disability. For example, in Canada trade unions have engaged themselves in extensive schemes that tend to address disability issues within the spectrum of Canadian legislation. This include a variety of works such as bringing up supportive designs, enhancing policy input and implementing the relief oriented schemes.

Role of Media/ Media Campaigns
Creating Inclusive Cultures
Realizing their rights/ their role as responsible citizens
Improvement of educational environment and its accessibility
Proper Need Assessment
Improvements Education Sector
Introducing adequate policies, legislative and enforcement framework.
The need of the hour is to formulate legislation on disability based upon eradicating discrimination and adaptations. Mention Case of Pakistan
Brail as an optional Subject
Transport and Communication concessions
Absence of wheelchair access in working areas and denial to use public transport are the main hindrances.
Morale building (people’s name TITLE)
Forming disable persons’ Unions
It is believed that by initiating projects that incorporate solely the disable persons into unions or association can enhance the possibilities of their social acceptance and participation. By ths way the disable can find a way to speak or themselves and thus the social outcomes as equalization of opportunities increases. Another benefit of such organizations is that they can bring about an active participation of the disable people in collaboration with the government in decision making and in formulation and implementation of policies regarding them. Political stability can only be achieved when the needs of every sector of the society is adhered to. Therefore, the need to build these local DPOs is a vital instrument to consolidate their political power and to publicize information. It is commendable that these disability oriented organizations should unify to form a federation as it lead to consolidate the strength and fortify the individual voices of the separate organizations. Social structures can be transformed only by a strong and unified body embattled in cohesion.
In Cape Verde the Disable Persons Organization formed a federation that would represent all the disable persons in advocating their demands and safeguarding their rights.
Eradicating Poverty
The factor of poverty is also responsible for creating social isolation of disable persons. Though poverty is a structural phenomenon and is connected directly to the fragile conditions of the country yet it hinders in the social integration of these people. It is therefore necessary to address the social and economic condition of the country and develop effectual public policies. The need is to improve the rehabilitation services and promotion of health benefits in the available resources so as to enhance the personal integration and a sense of strong independence as productive citizens of the country. It is said that poverty and disability maintains a close relation between them especially in the scenario of disable persons. Being a disable person raises the chances of being economically vulnerable as it is difficult for them to satisfy their financial needs as getting employment is made difficult for them.
Let’s consider the example of Cape Verde, a country in Africa as a reference in this case. According to the report of World Bank, 30% of the country’s population live below the poverty line and 14% live in abject poverty. The disable persons formed the most marginalized and neglected part of the society with nearly no educational, employment or health services. Cape Verde’s signing of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) was ratified in 2011. Besides this, the country launched a massive program for the social inclusion of disable persons. Awareness programs were held by the joint collaboration of the government and the local associations. Television programs were made with the slogan of ‘Cape Verde, for an Inclusive Society’. The worth noticing points were the inclusion of disable persons in all leading roles and all these programs were translated into sign languages. Pamphlets were printed with the title ‘A World for Us All’ which aimed at introducing new dimensions for the disable persons and promoting and protecting their rights. Under the supervision of government awareness programs were held and the rights of disable persons were strengthened and for the first time they were included in the decision making bodies. All this resulted in greater productivity and communal participation of the PWDs in the Cape Verde’s society.
CASE OF PAKISTAN
Magnitude of disability in Pakistan (Census 2018)/ Why is it mandatory for Pakistan to include disable persons
Judgment Sheet Lahore High Court
Sightsaver’s Project
RECOMMENDATIONS/ WAY FORWARD
If participated in the mainstream of society, people possessing intellectual and physical disabilities tend to create positive awareness and highlight the gains regarding the social inclusion of disable people.
Community participation is directly proportional to the disable person’s interpersonal relationships.
Introducing adequate policies, legislative and enforcement framework.

CONCLUSION
Lesson for normal people.