Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of determine a patient’s level of consciousness for initial as well as subsequent assessment .This avoids the need to make arbitrary distinctions between consciousness and different levels of coma. Brain injury is often classified as severe (GCS less than 8), moderate (GCS 9 till 12) and mild (GCS more than 13).
GCS was initially used to assess level of consciousness after head injury and the scale is now used by first responders, EMS, nurses, and doctors as being applicable to all acute medical and traumatic patients. In hospitals, it is also used in monitoring chronic patients in intensive care. The GCS was developed as a simple, objective assessment of impaired consciousness and coma and is based on eye opening, verbal and motor responsiveness (Teasdale ; Jennett, 1974).
Its straightforward approach by nursing, medical and other staff and use of simple terms to record and communicate their findings, the scale became an integral part of the care of patients with acute brain injury from head trauma, intracranial haemorrhage and many other causes. The GCS reflects the initial severity of brain dysfunction, while serial assessments demonstrate the evolution of the injury. Each is crucial for decision making. The GCS is also a guide to prognosis and an essential tool for research studies. Four decades after its introduction, the GCS has gained worldwide acceptance (Teasdale et al., 2014). It is now employed in more than 80 countries, has been translated into more than 60 languages and there are more than 18,000 references to its use (Middleton, 2012).