Coaching and mentoring within the context of an organisation has been defined as ‘The potential to transform individuals’ performance and organisations’ success

Coaching and mentoring within the context of an organisation has been defined as ‘The potential to transform individuals’ performance and organisations’ success…Coaching enables managers to find business solutions using their own resources and as such it can be a powerful tool for organsational development. (Institute of Leadership and Management, 2011)

Suzanne Faure describes mentoring a ‘long term relationship that meets a development need, helps develop full potential, and benefits all partners, mentor, mentee and the organisation’

The University of Leicester Coaching Academy defines Coaching ‘the coachee has all the resources required to be able to solve his or her own issues…Coaching, as we see it, is not about giving advice and the coach does not need to be an ‘expert’ in the coachee’s area of work. Nor is it counselling, although occasionally personal issues may be considered when necessary. There are boundaries in coaching and the coach promises to work within the limit of his or her knowledge and competence, focusing on work-related issues’

In summary these quotes suggest that coaching and mentoring are both important areas for organisations to have to support the development of staff and leaders to reach their full potential.

There are many similarities between coaching and mentoring practices as listed below;

• Both require a confidential environment to be established and maintained throughout the interactions and outside of the interaction.
• For both practices this is achieved through contracting at the start of the coaching or mentoring and maintaining trust.
• Also established when contracting are the professional boundaries and framework that will be worked within although the role of each differs.
• Coaching and mentoring are practices that support the individual to improve in a working environment, however may also be used for personal development too.
• Questioning and listening skills are required in both practices
• Being supportive and non-judgmental are important factors of both practices

The table below illustrates the differences between coaching and mentoring.

Coaching Mentoring Explanation
Short term Medium to longer term Coaching would normally take place for about 4 sessions of 1 ½ hours over a couple of months whereas Mentoring may happen over several months
Used to improve abilities and performance in the coachees current role Used to supports career progression/aspirations Due to the shorter-term nature of coaching, in organisations coaching is used to improve people’s current development and performance needs. For example, time management and motivation, whereas mentoring supports people to excel in their aspirational career through learning from an expert.
Little or no knowledge of area/role Highly knowledgeable/skilled in role or has an aspirational role It is best when coaching to have little or no knowledge of the person’s role as this aides with the need to not provide advice, whereas mentors are normally highly skilled and experienced in their role and offer advice based on experience.
Answers comes from within the person Answer provided by sharing experience Coaching is a non-advisory practice which requires coaches to work with individuals to gain answers for themselves through questioning, time to talk and time to reflect. Mentoring as a practice however is about passing on knowledge and sharing own experiences.
Outcomes developed through interactions Outcomes developed from the start This area is linked to the above. In coaching practice due to the thinking that answers come from within outcomes are made by the coach through the interactions because of effective questioning. In mentoring however, outcomes are developed at the start to support both mentor and mentee to understand the direction of what specific advice and discussions may need to take place.

1.2 Identify potential individual, operational and organisational barriers to using coaching or mentoring and develop appropriate strategies for minimising or overcoming these
(8 marks)

There are number of barriers of using coaching practices for individual, operational and organisational reasons.

Individual Barriers
• Not seen as valuable or ‘fluffy’ approach
• Time available outside of normal working day is limited
• Seen as a performance management tool
• Having to find the answers for themselves maybe perceived as a negative – Some people are used to just being told
• Highlighting something that the individual may want to keep hidden

Operational issues
• Time required to attend coaching sessions
• Seen as an alternative to having ‘difficult conversations’
• Funding for coaching

Organisational issues
• The organisations might not be ready for a coaching culture
• People will start to challenge aspects of their role, their leader and organisations
• No grasp of its value
• Other pressures are a priority
• Cost to train people as coaches

Although there are several barriers identified there are equally many strategies that can be used to minimize or reduce these.

• Talk to people about the practice. Make it open and transparent to allay fears
• Prove its validity through sharing examples of using coaching
• Determine how coaching will work in the organisation
• Explain how coaching will be used in the organisation
• Utilise coaching skills within the supervisions and appraisal rather than always having more formal coaching sessions
• Develop an approach to ensure that those seeking to be trained as coaches are already supportive of the approach or may have some informal skills/knowledge

1.3 Present the case for using coaching or mentoring to benefit individuals and organisation performance
(8 marks)
A document written by the CIPD describes that coaching ‘is used nearly as much to improve poor performance as to build on good performance. One interesting point is the increase for both these purposes – in each case the proportion of usage has doubled since the 2009 survey. Thus we are seeing an honest focus on coaching as a remedial and talent acceleration proposition’ (The Coaching Climate 2011)
The below graph which has been taken from the Coaching Climate’s document illustrates the change in the purpose of Coaching from 2009 to 2011

There are many benefits to using a coaching approach. Coaching can benefit an organisation over the short and long term.

The benefits are that the organisation
• Will gain new idea generation
• Coaching promotes a less directive style
• Gain more innovation within the workplace
• Employees are more engaged
• Timely decisions making occurs
• Decisions are made at multiple levels which reduces the management time required for this
• Better relationships start to form
• Increased networking and collaboration
• Increased passion and drive to meet the organisations aims and vision
• Workforce is more engaged
• Culture and behavioral changes are visible by increased confidence and resilience
• There is a skilled workforce
• People will want to come and work there as it seen as having an excellent reputation for staff development
• Less time and money is needed for recruitment of new staff.

The University of Leicester uses coaching to benefit individuals and the organisations performance as it is thought that;
• It develops leaders and brings out their unique talents
• It is learner-initiated and learner-led, so there is better personal ownership
• It works on two levels- we solve our immediate issue and learn how to address future issues
• It can be done pretty much anywhere and on demand
• It is non-hierarchical. Anyone can coach anyone irrespective of grade
• It is not job-specific. Anyone can coach anyone irrespective of ‘job family
• Coaching helps draw out our potential and – through sharing ideas and experiences with a coach – we generate learning for ourselves about leadership (and about our other challenges).
(Claire Nichols University of Leicester, Presentation slides – February 2018)

For individuals, coaching can be an empowering experience due to the practice of answers being sought from within. Coaching practice promotes; The above will put individuals in a positive frame of mind and desire to succeed. This will then result in achieving tasks using own initiative and own resources, enjoyment in role and less likely to leave unless this is due to promotion, better outcomes for the team, potentially more work being completed to a higher standard and an increase in performance will be celebrated by line manager.

Section 2- Understand the skills, behaviours, attitudes, beliefs and values of an effective coach or mentor

2.1 Critically explore the knowledge, skills, and behaviour of an effective coach or mentor
(8 marks)
My understanding is that coaching practice is not something that you can just learn and continue to do the same. It is an evolving practice where you learn from experience, theory, reflection and evaluation from others. It is important that coaches build up the following knowledge, skills and behaviors to be an effective coach and continues to enhance their understanding of all elements of coaching.
Knowledge
• Coaching theory – For examples GROW model, ACHIEVE model, coaching spectrum, knowing that the person has their own answers
• Understanding of role and boundaries – For example own limitations, not stepping in to mentoring or counselling and not advising as a coach
• Effective questions – Understanding different types of question such as open, hypothetical, closed and having a core set of useful question
• Reflective practice – Using coaching diaries and gaining feedback from the coachee to improve practice

Skills
• Listening – Active Listening and using the coaches own language to summarise to confirm that you are listening
• Questioning – Using mainly open questions to help the person think about the issue and respond in greater depth to help come up with their own solution
• Empathy – It is important to have empathy with the coachee to gain trust
• Giving positive feedback – To be an effective coach positive feedback is essential as anything else would be dismissive of the persons thought, however that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t also challenge to get an even more effective experience.
• Observing body language – Being an effective coach is about picking on non-verbal cues from the coachee to help with understanding what is going for them. Also, it is important to recognize your own body language.
• Knowing when something isn’t working – It is important to observe what is happening during coaching and recognise through either verbal or non-verbal cues when something is not working and change what you or doing or if needed ‘check in’ with the coachee. Self-awareness is key
• Time management – Formal coaching session need to start and finish on time otherwise the coachee may lose faith in the boundaries that have been set.

Behaviour
• Non-judgmental – It is important for a coach to be non-judgmental, non-biased and have respect as these are the ethics of the practice. Failure not to practice in this way will also result in a lack of trust and respect and reduce engagement by the coachee.
• Being present – It is important that you are completely attentive in the coaching session as otherwise active listening cannot take place which then weakens the coaching practice
• Patient – Giving time to the coachee to explore their own thoughts is the key to effective coaching. It is important to not jump in too soon to get them to a quick answer
• Create positive exchanges
• Curious about people doing/being them – Taking a genuine interest and having curiosity in people, enables coaches to support the coachee though naive questioning.

2.2 Analyse why coaches or mentors require effective communication skills
(8 marks)
It is important that coaches have effective communication skills as this
• Builds trust
• Builds Rapport
• Helps the coachee open up
• Enables more successful coaching
• Ensure boundaries/contract/contracting are understood and maintained
• Facilitates better engagement

A particular communication skill is deep listening. In the Hawkins and Smith (2006) model for listening, they explore the different levels of listening and outcomes for the listener.
Level Activity of listener Outcome for listener
1. Attending Eye contact and body posture demonstrates interest in the coachee/mentee “This person wants to listen to me”
2. Accurate listening Above, plus accurately paraphrasing and reflecting back what the coachee/mentee is saying “This person hears and understands what I am talking about”
3. Empathic listening Both the above, plus matching coachee, mentee’s non-verbal cues, sensory frame and metaphors, and felling oneself into their situation “This person feels what it is like to be in my position, they get my reality”
4. Generative empathic listening All the above, plus using’s one’s own intuition and ‘felt sense’ to connect more fully what one has heard in the way one plays it back “This person helps me to hear myself more fully than I can by myself”

My experience from practice coaching sessions has demonstrated to me that when I am using effective communication skills, particularly deep listening skills and paraphrasing, I feel more relaxed in my coaching practice as I don’t feel as much self-pressure to think of the next question. I just feel present and engaged.
For the coachee, I have observed that the conversation has moved to a deeper level rather than the coachee providing surface information. This has led to the coachee coming up with solutions that they have more will to complete. I have also observed that rapport continued to build throughout the session, such as continued eye contact, mirroring of body language and using a similar tone or voice.
For further coaching sessions, I will ensure that I build 15-20 minutes preparation time before the coaching session to help me clear my mind. Throughout the session I will also work on letting thoughts drift in an out of my mind as easily as I can.
Within my Elisha workbook, there is a quick picture that sums up the 4 levels which is shown below

After each session, I will use this picture as a way to help me l reflect on my being ‘present’ and using deep listening, thinking about what went well, how easier it was to do or not and why and I will continue to learn and improve in this area. This will help my communication skills by improving my listening skills, questioning skills and building rapport.

2.3 Review the responsibilities of the coach or mentor to manage relationships (including values and power) and remain ethical and non-judgemental
(8 marks)
As an in-training coach and hopefully a soon to be qualified coach, it is important that I manage my coaching relationships by remaining ethical and non-judgemental in my practice.
A coach’s responsibilities for managing the coaching relationships are to
• Agree and work to boundaries
• Establish and maintain confidentiality whilst working with the coachee and beyond.
• Build trust and having integrity
• Challenge the coachee to stretch themselves
• Show respect
• Have an understanding that my drivers are different to theirs
• Oppose oppression
• Be non-discriminative
• Be fair to coaches

To support coaches to carry out these responsibilities it is vital that coaches work to ethic and are non-judgemental. The way in which a coach can do this practically are to
• Have professionalism
• Continue to develop skills and knowledge
• Continue to develop and understand own self (increase self-awareness) and understand own values and beliefs
• Understanding pre-conceived ideas and how this effects non-discrimination

When practicing, I need to demonstrate that I am maintaining my responsibilities by agreeing a contract and through contracting throughout my time working with the coachee, turning up on time, use appropriate language, keeping on task, good presentation of myself, being present, explaining confidentiality and ensure that I prove that I maintain this, not bringing in my own viewpoints, understand that sometimes I might not be able to coach someone due to conflict of interests, attend regular coaching supervision, enhance the reputation of coaching.
Make sure you include a little bit explicitly about (differing) values & the potential power differential (remember we touched on TA in module 1). Other than that, great.
The European Mentoring and Coaching Council (EMCC) has a code of ethics which is split in to four sections which covers the areas I have raised regarding responsibilities of a coach.
1. Terminology
2. Working with Clients
3. Professional Conduct
4. Excellent Practice

Further extracts say

2.3 Before starting to work with a client, members will explain and strive to ensure that a client knows, and fully understands, the nature and terms and conditions, of any coaching or mentoring contract, including financial, logistical and confidentiality arrangements.

2.17 To avoid any conflict of interest, members will distinguish a coaching or mentoring relationship from other forms of relationships, such as a friendship or a business relationship.

3.1 Members are expected to behave in a way that at all times reflects positively upon, and enhances the reputation of, the coaching and mentoring profession.

3.7 Members will monitor their language, spoken, written and non-verbal, for inadvertent discrimination.

4.1 Members will have the qualifications, skills and experience appropriate to meet the needs of the client and operate within the limits of their competence. Members should refer the client to more experienced or suitably qualified coaches, mentors or professionals, if appropriate.

Section 3 Understand the role of contracting and the process to effectively coach or mentor
3.1 Review a model or process which should be followed when formally coaching or mentoring
(8 marks)
The GROW model is one model that could be used when formally coaching.
The GROW model was developed by Sir John Whitmore. The model is used to support the coachee to move towards taking effective action for themselves by working through the elements Goal, Reality, Options and Will as represented in the picture below.
The model is not linear and you can go in and out of each element as needed, however until the Goal is clearly understood by the coachee it is unlikely they will have much will to complete any of the options

I have used the GROW model in practice coaching sessions and as part of a Personal Development Plan for a person that I line manage.
I have found the GROW model to be effective, however it may also limit my practice.

When using the model in the area’s described above it has helped provide structure to the conversation, open up dialogue, helped to explore the goal in more detail which clarifies and confirms this for the coachee. I have found that the original goal that the coachee presented with can change in to something more tangible or stretching for the individual.

I have also found the model particularly useful to find out where the person currently is in their journey to meet their goal. My experience has shown that this makes people question themselves and gives them more self-awareness which then leads them to think about what they can do to move closer to their goal by formulating their own ideas.

When my practice coachee has formulated their own options, I usually use the will part of the model. I have found this to be an effective way to gain self-agreement from the coachee and confirm the likelihood they are to complete the options that they have come up with.

In my coaching practice I have experienced practice coaches comment by saying things like ‘oh I didn’t realise myself how far I have come until I said it out allowed’ or ‘ I have got more to do than I thought but I am determined to do it’

Although I have talked about how I have found the effectiveness of the GROW model and the positive outcomes I have seen when I have used this or observed others using this, I am aware that this may limit my practice. For example, I do not want to get complacent in using one model. I am keen to explore other models and test them out. I am keen to learn about the OSCAR Model (Outcome, Situation, Choices and Consequences, Actions and Review) by OSCAR with a C is by Gilbert & Whittleworth ?????? As although there are many similarities between the two models, GROW does not really cover the consequences of doing or not doing something or who the coachee will review their actions with.

These elements of the OSCAR model maybe beneficial for some coachee’s especially those with limited awareness of the issue or those with poor motivation.

3.2 Analyse the rationale for and the characteristics of effective contracting within coaching or mentoring
(8 marks)
Having effective contracting within coaching is essential as it establishes a foundation and core expectations to work from.
Crowe Associates say ‘Contracting for the Coach and client in coaching practice is important. It sets the ground rules for the coaching relationship so that both parties know their level of commitment and what they are “signing up for”.’
The below table identifies the key characteristics of effective contracting and why they are needed
Characteristics Why/Rationale
Chemistry meeting pre-coaching • Starts to build rapport
• Increase understanding of coaching
• Helps to build trust
• Identifies whether you can continue to work with each other
Discussing and agreeing confidentiality
inside and outside of the sessions • Helps to build trust
• Helps set up an environment of openness
• Builds respect of the coach and the coaching practice
Discussing expectation and boundaries of coaching
• Helps to define roles and responsibilities of a coach
• Opportunity to share coaching ethics
• Gives the coachee a better understanding of coaching
• Helps the coachee to see the value of coaching and their sessions
• Helps the coachee understand that they have ownership of their own goals
• Confirms that no advice is given through coaching
• Enables the coach to say no easily it something that is outside of their boundaries
How it will work best for them • Get to understand more about how to work with the coachee in terms of location, time, style etc. which will lead to more effective sessions.
• Starts to build rapport
Agreeing commitments which includes time in session, but also time outside of sessions
• To gain an understanding and agreement of how long we may be working with each other for
• Helps the coachee to understand coaching is not a quick fix
• Helps to create effective relationship
• Confirms the coaches and coaches availability outside of sessions
Review and continue to contract • Helps identify any changes around current commitments, place to meets
• Continues to build trust and rapport
• Continues to build an environment of openness
• Confirms confidentiality

The above can be simplified in to 3 aspects and as described by Berne (1966) he states, ‘In principle, there are three aspects to any coaching contract
• Administrative – the logistics and process under which the coaching will take place as well as legal or other considerations including compliance with data protection requirements;
• Professional – the objectives of the coaching programme and the roles and responsibilities of the parties; and
• Psychological – what the parties expect over and above the explicit expectations set out in the written contract.’

For me, contracting is split in to pre, during and post coaching elements which includes the need to have somethings in writing, some discussion and contracting through behaviors. This approach provides a balance of necessary paperwork as well as personal preferences of the coachee to read and hear information.

For the behaviors element of contracting, I believe this is how as a coach you embrace the characteristics to become part of you and carry these out during the coaching sessions, for example not meeting somewhere that is convenient for you as a coach but not the coachee, being fully present, building rapport and being respectful.

3.3 Explain the necessity of exploring the expectations and boundaries of a coaching or mentoring programme with all stakeholders
(8 marks)
It is important to explore the expectations and boundaries of a coaching programme to ensure its success. You need to have conversations with all stakeholders that will be directly involved or directly affected by the coaching programme to find out what current thinking and appetite is about coaching as a practice and what can and can’t be achieved by a coaching model.
Stakeholders will include the Organisation, Leaders, Trainers, Coachees, Coaches and Coaching supervisors
It is important to explore, agree and have a common understanding on the following expectations and boundaries;
• Coaching might not be the right thing to do at that time
• May be exactly the right time to build in coaching within the organisation
• Communication of the benefits and limitation to all stakeholders to make it transparent which builds confidence of the programme and leads to its success.
• Making sure the organisation knows what it is taking on – May not have the right culture and take on more than it can chew
• The power of a coaching for coachee’s – Staff will be more empowered
• The funding that is available for training and releasing capacity for coaching sessions as well as coaching supervision. Coaching is not a quick fix cheap option; however the longer-term effects mean that the organisation is far more efficient due to having empowered staff that need less support to make decisions
• How will the organisation engage people in to the programme which includes Leaders, potential coaches and coaches
• Coaching is not an alternative to line management
Without a discussion, understanding and acknowledgement of the above areas a coaching programme will not be effective.
The University of Leicester has set up a coaching and mentoring Academy, which was initiated through the development of the strategic plan. As part of the development in the following quote you will read that they talk about culture, nurturing individual strength. This quote supports my understanding of having a common understanding of expectations and boundaries;
‘Why have we created a coaching and mentoring academy?
One of the four key pillars of activity in the University’s Strategic Plan is a Discovery-enabling culture, which is described in the Plan as one that ‘actively supports all of our staff in fulfilling their potential, sharing their ideas and experiences and learning through leading’. This culture encourages creativity, measured risk-taking and collaboration.
When it comes to developing its leaders the University has decided that it needs a diversity of leadership talent so that it is sufficiently agile to meet the full range of its complex and ever-changing challenges. A rigid framework of leadership competencies and skills is too constraining. Instead we want to focus on nurturing individual strengths and respecting difference in leadership skills and styles.
Coaching and mentoring are ideal ways of bringing out the best in us all. Therefore, we are creating a University of Leicester coaching and mentoring academy. The academy will enable us to develop our capabilities so that we are equipped to coach and mentor one another confidently and effectively and have courageous conversations. It will also provide a central resource where we can access coaching and mentoring support when we need it.’ (University of Leicester – Coaching Academy)

3.4 Justify the rationale for supervision of coaches and mentors in practice
(8 marks)
When exploring the rationale for supervision of coaches there are numerous areas to consider when justifying the need for this within the practice.

Firstly, there are governing bodies that help to maintain the coaching practice. The main two being the European Mentoring and Coaching Council (EMCC) and the Association for Coaching. Both bodies have supervision built in to their code of practice.
Secondly, there is the importance of supervision to inform and enhance the coaches practice.
And finally, how effective supervision benefits the coachee.

The functions of supervision as described within the EMCC Guidelines for Supervision (date) include:
• ‘Developing the competence and capability of the coach / mentor.
• Providing a supportive space for the coach / mentor to process the experiences they have had when working with clients.
• Encouraging professional practice related to quality, standards and ethics.’

The European Mentoring and Coaching Council and Association for Coaching – Global Code Of Ethics For Coaches & Mentors (date) states that supervision is:
4.3 To support their learning and on-going professional development, members will engage in regular reflective practice.
4.4 Members will engage in supervision with a suitably qualified supervisor or peer supervision group with a level of frequency that is appropriate to their coaching or mentoring practice, the requirements of their professional body and the level of their accreditation.
4.5 Members need to ensure that any other existing relationship with the supervisor does not interfere with the quality of the supervision provided.
4.6 Members will discuss any ethical dilemmas and potential, or actual, breaches of this code with their supervisor or peer supervision group for support/guidance.

As a coach, if you are a member of either or both governing bodies, then failure to comply the code would see you unable to continue to practice.
Supervision for coaches is the foundation of the coaching practice which supports the coach to improve their practice through reflection. Formal coaching supervision ensures that the quality of practice is it an acceptable level. This includes working to practice ethics, that continued self-reflection and training is happening and that the coach continues to be fit to practice.
All though a coach can self-reflect and learn outside of the supervision environment, the coach also benefits from coaching supervision as this forms part of reflection, it is there to get some coaching to help find a way forward with more challenging situations and sessions, you work with a more experienced coach. Also supervision is there as a method of support as it is recognised that coaching can be emotionally draining.
The 2009 CIPD Report, Coaching Supervision Maximising the Potential of Coaching stated that “Coaches see the main benefits of supervision as developing coaching capability (88%) and assuring the quality of their coaching (86%).”
For coachees, although they won’t be directly part of the coaching supervision, the coaching, reflection and knowledge gained will be a direct enhancement to the quality of coaching that they receive from the coach. For example, this may mean that they are challenged more leading to more effective understanding of the issues for the coachee.

Section 4 Understand the principles of effective coaching or mentoring in practice and how to evaluate benefits

4.1 Critically review the elements required for effective and integrated coaching or mentoring
(8 marks)
For coaching to be fully effective and integrated it is important that coaching that is completed goes well beyond scratching the surface of the issues.
A representation created by Robert Dilts describes the 6 levels to truly learning and making change. The 6 levels are environment, behavior, capabilities, values and beliefs, identity and purpose/spiritual

Neuro-Logical Levels model Dilts, R (1989, 1990, 1993, 2000, 2003)

Dilts describes ‘Environmental factors determine the context and constraints under which people operate. An organization’s environment, for instance, is made up of such things as the geographical locations of its operations, the buildings and facilities which define the “work place,” office and factory design, etc. In addition to the influence these environmental factors may have on people within the organization, one can also examine the influence and impact that people within an organization have upon their environment, and what products or creations they bring to the environment.’
‘At another level, we can examine the specific behaviors and actions of a group or individual-i.e., what the person or organization does within the environment. What are the particular patterns of work, interaction or communication? On an organizational level, behaviors may be defined in terms of general procedures. On the individual level, behaviors take the form of specific work routines, working habits or job related activities.
‘Another level of process involves the strategies, skills and capabilities by which the organization or individual selects and directs actions within their environment…For an individual, capabilities include cognitive strategies and skills such as learning, memory, decision-making and creativity, which facilitate the performance of a particular behavior or task.’
‘These other levels of process are shaped by values and beliefs, which provide the motivation and guidelines behind the strategies and capabilities used to accomplish behavioral outcomes in the environment-i.e., why people do things the way they do them in a particular time and place. Our values and beliefs provide the reinforcement (motivation and permission) that supports or inhibits particular capabilities and behavior. Values and beliefs support the individual’s or organization’s sense of identity-i.e., the who behind the why, how, what, where and when.
‘Identity level processes involve people’s sense of role and mission with respect to their vision and the larger systems of which they are members. A particular identity or role is expressed in terms of several key values and beliefs, which determine the priorities to be followed by individuals within the role. These, in turn, are supported by a larger range of skills and capabilities that are required to manifest particular values and beliefs.’
‘There is another level that can best be referred to as a spiritual level. This level has to do with people’s perceptions of the larger systems to which they belong and within which they participate-we could call this level one of “trans-mission.” These perceptions relate to a person’s sense of for whom or for what their actions are directed, providing a sense of vision, meaning and purpose for their actions, capabilities, beliefs and role identity.’
When thinking about the key elements of coaching these could link to Dilts’ model and the GROW model to ensure that coaching is effective and integrated. An example of how these could work together could be, in terms of the environment, it is important in coaching for the coachee to explore the environmental constraints and the influence this had. You could use the reality part of the GROW model to support with this.
A further example could be to explore the coachee’s values and beliefs to support them to develop the WILL element of the GROW model.
It is essential that coaching uses frameworks to support practice such as GROW as without this the person will not be clear on what they want to achieve and the coach is just asking questions with no direction or purpose.

Another essential element of coaching is listening. As explored earlier on in the assignment active listening is not enough. Yes this is more than just hearing but does not demonstrate that you have been paying 100% attention, where as in deep listening you use the coaches own words to paraphrase what they have said to ask a further question. This shows that you are fully present.

Is supervision required? It may be seen as a non-essential part of coaching, more time out of the day job or coaching work, or if you have lots of experience seen as a waste of time. However coaching supervision is extremally important when practicing as a coach as this is an in-valuable opportunity to be coached to self-reflect and find ways to move forward with more challenging situations. Supervision all supports the reputation of coaching as a practice.
With all the bureaucracy these days and gaining written permissions all the time, do we need to gain agreements and complete contracting with coaches? Informal approaches to this may seem a friendlier way and help remove barriers, allowing more time for coaching. However contracting forms part of the Global Code Of Ethics For Coaches ; Mentors (European Mentoring and Coaching Council and the Association for Coaching)
‘2.3 Before starting to work with a client, members will explain and strive to ensure that a client knows, and fully understands, the nature and terms and conditions, of any coaching or mentoring contract, including financial, logistical and confidentiality arrangements.’
Formal contracting helps to build in key legal information such as data protection and confidentiality. It also ensures that boundaries are clear, which helps protect you as a coach.
For coaching to be integrated fully within the workplace, it is vital that buy-in of the coaching approach is achieved. What I mean buy this is an organisation and individuals that want to be coached – a coaching culture v’s forced to do it. People need to embrace coaching as a successful practice but also understand that this is not going to solve problems all in one go. Coaching is a gradual process of change but with outcomes creating fantastic results. You might also briefly mention integration of coaching into the organizations policies, processes and strategies.

4.2 Analyse how the benefits of coaching or mentoring should be evaluated
(12 marks)
There are a number of things to consider when thinking about how to analyse the benefits of how coaching should be evaluated which include who, how and what to evaluate. The benefits of coaching should be evaluated at multiple levels to ensure its effectiveness. It is important to do this to have a 360 degree approach to evaluation.
The following table illustrates how this could be done in practice.
Who How What
Coachee
Coachees should be able to provide reflections of how the coaching has worked for them after each session, during work supervision and at an appraisal via questionnaire and interviews Assess whether the coaching approach is still being sustained within their everyday working life.
Coaches
Reflection, coaching supervision, work supervision, feedback to senior leaders Reflection on practice to ensure it is even more effective.
How many coaches you see and how long coaching takes.
Anonymise feedback on the outcomes that people are achieving.
Assess whether the coaching approach is still being sustained
Managers
Through supervision of coaches, completing appraisals, performance meetings, hearing positive feedback, being challenged more, staff have clarity about role and tasks are being completed, Assessing the demands on their time in areas such as decision making and support time.
Gauging increase in confidence within the team
How many people in their team have or are being coached
Senior Managers
Feedback from managers, coaches and coachees. Being coached themselves, Identifying key strategic changes as a direct result of coaching
Assessing the cultural change within the organisation
Organisationally
Surveys, questionnaire, telephone interviews, workshops, Coaching business cases Review what people are seeking coaching for
Assessing the cultural change within the organisation
More pro-active response to development
Coaching supervisor Coaching supervision, reflection of outcomes that people achieve, Ensure that practice is challenging enough for coachee’s
Ensuring that good quality coaching is happening.
As part of a review by the Institute for Employment Studies (2006) the below shows a summary of evaluation methods used by other companies to evaluate coaching

This shows ……blah blah

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