CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Project summary
Now days one of the strongest application of WNs is to find position of various objects. Finding position of any object is also is known as localization technique. Localization may have many applications like
The shared nature of the wireless medium, allows wireless networks to be easily monitored and broadcast on. Malicious user may easily observe communication between wireless devices and can launch simple denial of service attacks against wireless network by injecting false messages.
Jamming in Wireless communication is a type of Denial of Service attack targeting the availability of Communication. Such an attack tries to interfere with the physical transmission and reception of wireless communication purposefully. In the simplest case, A jamming attack can easily be performed by continuously blasting radio signals in the channel where legitimate traffic is transmitted. By doing this, legitimate signals collide with this noise signals and result in corrupted data at the receiver side .
Detecting jamming attacks is important because it is first step towards building a secure and dependable wireless network. It is challenging because jammers can employ different models, and it is often difficult to differentiate a jamming scenarios.
1.2 Purpose
Now a day’s one of the strongest application of WNs is to find position coordinates of various objects for tracking. For example,
• Location-based routing
• Security
WNs operate itself therefore sensor node require to be more robust , consuming less power and work in all environment properly.
1.3 Scope
The proposed project provides design ideas to locate unauthorized malicious transmitter in particular geographical area. As the wireless communication technology advances , it may increase the chances of unsafe communication , For example unauthorized hot spot creator in particular area may jammed the other Wi-Fi
users , so there will be a requirement to detect and locate such unauthorized transmitters. Proposed project address the same.
Expenditure:
Software Define Radio (With Lab VIEW): 1,70,000/-
Consumables: 500/-
Stationary: 1000/-
________
1, 71,500/-
(All these resources available in the Department)

1.4 Report out line
The report is organized in the following manner.
Chapter 2: In this section, the survey of jammer detection and localization is discussed with the work done in the field of jammer detection and localization algorithms. Several mechanism applied are discussed with necessary details.
Chapter 3: The software defined radio architecture is explained in this section. The NI-USRP is Introduced in this chapter.
Chapter 4: In this chapter, the jammer detection and localization algorithm modeling is proposed and discussed with details.
Chapter 5: In this chapter, simulation results are given and based on simulations some discussion is given.
Chapter 6: In this cheapter simulation of jammer attributes ,primary mathematics proposed algorithm.
Chapter 7: Conclusion and future plan.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
The objective of a Localization protocol is to get information about current position of a node in the Wireless Network (WN).
As per the literature survey,
Non-GPS localization schemes are more practical for WNs
The EDM is observed the oblique distance, vertical angle, instrument height and prism height between two points using total station, and then use the principle of trigonometry to calculate the elevation difference. In this study, three observation methods were used to investigate the accuracy of measurement.
RIPS method is localizing method which is low cost method but it is limited to some range of distance and multipath effect.
In, It is demonstrated that ? estimate with an average accuracy of 3.2o using t-range technique.
For a smaller range of angles between 0 and in a rural area where no multipath e?ects are present other than ground re?ections obtained data are similar to the predicted values.

CHAPTER 3
CANVAS DESIGN
3.1 Empathy Canvas

As mentioned above, internet Communication has become universal. So I have analysed the actual problems various human kind is going through it obviously related to wireless communication link.
In the Empathy Canvas I have mention 4 stories which are genuine issue, where two stories are before the research and other two are after the research. How humankind is still not satisfied with the present technology and our goal is by sharing our best knowledge we can contribute for this humankind.
3.2 Ideation Canvas

In Ideation canvas I have listed out the all users and what are the activities performed by the respective users , and the various locations they use to visit (here I have mentioned all the possible location/situation/ context related to every random users) and in the last column it is like what are the possible discomfort or the problems that is faced by them and obviously we as an engineer how we can rectify the problems by providing the possible solutions, and enhancing the technology with our engineering skills to make them relieve from discomfort zone.
3.3 AEIOU Canvas

I have recently visited Research as an educational visit, from visit I have got as an transparent idea for my project, as in research domain, basically from where our country govt. is working on i.e communication link hence here I have listed all the mentioned canvas for the venue of my AEIOU.
Activities that were this research centre, what kind of environment was there, the type interaction I experienced there, the available objects and at last users that were present in this research centre.

3.4 Product Development Canvas

Here in this canvas different blocks are there where I have mentioned as per the given title. What was the purpose of my project, how people are related to it. The limit here was that response from a layman wasn’t possible so I had to evaluate my product based on the results from other research papers. Other topics we were able to attain at based on the results from our simulations.
And what will be the functions and features of the products, components that will be required to make this project happen, what can be the other parameters that user may reject how can we rectify the rejected parameter and how we can retain its uniqueness.

CHAPTER 4
SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO
4.1 Introduction
Software Defined Radio is an emerging technology that has been an active research topic for over a decade. The terms software defined radio and software radio are used to describe radios whose implementation is largely software-based. These radios are reconfigurable through software updates. There are also wider definitions of the concept.
SDR defines a collection of hardware and software technologies where some or all of the radio’s operating functions (also referred to as physical layer processing) are implemented through modifiable software or firmware operating on programmable processing technologies. These devices include field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), digital signal processors (DSP), general purpose processors (GPP), programmable System on Chip (SoC) or other application specific programmable processors. The use of these technologies allows new wireless features and capabilities to be added to existing radio systems without requiring new hardware.
We refer to a transceiver as a software radio (SR) if its communication functions are realized as programs running on a suitable processor. Based on the same hardware, different transmitter/receiver algorithms, which usually describe transmission standards, are implemented in software. An SR transceiver comprises all the layers of a communication system.
The Universal Software Radio Peripherals interesting option for the SDR platform. The universal software radio peripheral (USRP) family of products has become a popular platform for hardware-based research. Software-Defined Radio (SDR) is a technique using software to make the radio functions hardware independent.

4.2 Block Diagram of SDR architecture
Shows an SDR transceiver that differs from a conventional transceiver only by the fact that it can be reconfigured via a control bus supplying the processing units with the parameters which describe the desired standard. Such a configuration, called a parameter-controlled (PaC) SDR, guarantees that the transmission can be changed instantaneously if necessary (e.g., for inter standard handover)

Fig 4.1 SDR transceiver
4.2.1 RF Front end
It is Composed of smart antenna which can work upon almost entire bandwidth , BPF ( Band Pass Filter ) ,LNA ( Low Noise amplifier ) and ADC( Analog to Digital converter).
4.2.2 Base Band Processing
This Block provides interfacing between the RF terminal and Digital Processor in term of timing synchronization and in addition it will act as multiplexer when to transmit or filter when to receive.
4.2.3 Data Processing
This block composed of processor and some additional hardware connections ,which enables computations for software based RF communication

The baseband signal processing of a digital radio (DR) is invariably implemented on a digital processor. An ideal SR directly samples the antenna output. A software-defined radio (SDR) is a practical version of an SR: the received signals are sampled after a suitable band selection filter. One remark concerning the relation between SRs and SDRs is necessary at this point: it is often argued that an SDR is a presently realizable version of an SR since state-of-the-art analog-to-digital (A/D) converters that can be employed in SRs are not available today. This argument, although it is correct, may lead to the completely wrong conclusion that an SR which directly digitizes the antenna output should be a major goal of future developments. Fact is that the digitization of an unnecessary huge bandwidth filled with many different signals of which only a small part is determined for reception is neither technologically nor commercially desirable. However, there is no reason for a receiver to extremely oversample the desired signals while respecting extraordinary dynamic range requirements for the undesired in-band signals at the same time. Furthermore, the largest portion of the generated digital information, which stems from all undesired in-band signals, is filtered out in the first digital signal processing step.
4.3 NI-USRP RF Hardware®
The RF Hardware used in the lab is the National Instruments USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral). The USRP module (Figure 3.1) is connected to PC through the gigabit Ethernet cable. The PC controls the operation of the module. In this section you will learn more about these modules.

4.3.1 Interfaces
Figure 3.3 introduces the USRP unit connections used.

Fig 4.2 USRP interfaces
The following steps are an overview of the NI USRP-29xx getting started process. Follow these steps to use the NI USRP-29xx after you install LabVIEW on your computer:
1. Install the NI USRP Software Suite DVD. The software suite adds the following items to your LabVIEW installation: the NI-USRP driver, LabVIEW Modulation Toolkit, LabVIEW MathScript, RT Module and LabVIEW Digital Filter Design Tool.
2. Connect the Device. Attach the antenna or cable to the front of the NI USRP-29xx device. Connect the device directly to your computer with the enclosed Ethernet cable and connect the power.
3. Change the IP address of your 1 Gigabit Ethernet Port to a static IP. NI recommends a static IP address of 192.168.10.1 because NI USRP-29xx devices have a default address of 192.168.10.2.
4.3.2 Features
Frequency Range: 50 MHz to 2.2 GHz
Bandwidth: 20 MHz bandwidth
Host I/F: Gigabit Ethernet (~100 MB/s)

Fig 4.3 NI USRP-2920 Module System Setup
4.3.3 Configuration Transmission Session of USRP Model
Description:
1. NI-USRP Open Tx Session VI: Opens a Tx session to the device(s) specify in the device names parameter and returns session handle out.
2. NI-USRP Configure Signal VI: Configures properties of the Tx or Rx signal.
3. NI-USRP Write Tx Data VI: Writes a cluster of complex, double-precision floating-point data to the specified channel.
4. NI-USRP Close Session VI: Closes the session handle to the device.

Fig 4.4 NI USRP-2920 Module Transmission Session
4.3.4 Configuration Reception Session of USRP Model
Description:
1. NI-USRP Open Rx Session VI: Opens an Rx session to the device(s) specify in the device names parameter and returns session handle out.
2. NI-USRP Configure Number of Samples VI: Specifies whether the device operation is finite or continuous and the number of samples to acquire.
3. NI-USRP Configure Signal VI: Configures properties of the Tx or Rx signal.

4. NI-USRP Initiate VI: The NI-USRP Initiate VI starts the waveform acquisition in an Rx session.
5. NI-USRP Fetch Rx Data VI: Fetches data from the specified channel list.
6. NI-USRP Abort VI: Stops an acquisition previously started.
7. NI-USRP Close Session VI: Closes the session handle to the device

Fig 4.5 NI USRP-2920 Module Reception Session
4.4 Summary
In this chapter we have seen the basic of Software defined radio. SDR can act as a key enabling technology for a variety of other reconfigurable radio equipments commonly discussed in the advanced wireless market. While SDR is not required to implement any of these radio types, SDR technologies can provide these types of radio with the flexibility necessary for them to achieve their full potential, the benefits of which can help to reduce cost and increase system efficiencies. The NI USRP connects to a host PC to act as a software-defined radio. So this enables us to perform all the possibilities which is possible in Software defined radio.