CAT 1 – Sex Education 1

CAT 1 – Sex Education 1. Reproductive organs
Males:

Organ
Function

Testicles
–  The sexual organ that produces sperm ?
–  Release male sex hormones, androgen and testosterone, which causes physical, psychological and physiological changes in males.
Scrotum
–  A sac which covers the testes and holds them outside the body. ?
–  Protects the testes ?
–  Regulates the temperature of the ?testes
Epididymis
– Matures and stores sperm
Seminal vesicles
–  store sperm and secrete fluid into the sperm ducts ?
–  Produces seminal fluid which feeds the sperm and allows them to swim ?
–  The fluid provides nutrients to the sperm and makes it easier for the sperm to move. It also prevents the sperm from sticking together.
Prostate gland
– secretes fluid into the semen. The fluid activates the sperms
Sperm ducts (vas deferens)
– carry sperms from the testes to the urethra
Urethra
–  A tube which carries urine from the urinary bladder ?
–  Also carries sperm from the sperm ducts to outside of the body ?
–  Semen and urine pass through the urethra at different times
Penis
– The organ from which semen (mixture of sperms and fluid) leaves the body and is deposited in the female reproductive system
Females:

Organ
Function

ovaries
–  produce the hormones and estrogen and progesterone ?
–  Site of ovum (egg cell) development and ovulation
Fallopian tubes (oviducts)
–  carry the ovum from the ovary to the uterus ?
–  Usually the site of fertilisation
fimbriae
– sweep the ovum into the Fallopian tube following ovulation
uterus (womb)
– pear-shaped organ in which the

embryo and fetus develop – Involved in menstruation
Cervix
–  separates the vagina from the uterus ?
–  Holds the fetus in place during ?pregnancy ?
–  Dilates during birth to allow the fetus ?to leave the uterus
vagina
–  extends from the cervix to the external environment ?
–  Provides a passageway for sperm and menstrual flow ?
–  Functions as the birth canal
2. Puberty changes
Males:
Usually happens around 11-13 years old
• –  growth of your testicles ?
• –  pubic hair develops around the base of the penis and scrotum ?
• –  The penis also begins to get bigger. ?
• –  Hair begins to grow under your arms. Later, hair may grow on your face, arms, legs, and ?chest. ?
• –  Growth spurt ?
• –  Voice deeper and larynx expands ?
• –  Body odour ?
• –  Acne ?
• –  Thoughts and feelings ?Females: ?Usually happens around 10-11 years old ?
• –  breasts development ?
• –  Growth spurt ?
• –  Hips widen ?
• –  Pubic hair growth ?
• –  Onset menstruation ?
• –  Thoughts and feelings ?3. Sexually Transmitted infections ?Chlamydia: ?
Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection, in both men and women.?How it spreads?
• –  By mother to baby by pregnancy, labour or nursing. ?
• –  By having unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex. What are the symptoms??Many who have chlamydia don’t develop symptoms ?
• –  Pain areas: in the eyes, lower abdomen, pelvis, testicle ?
• –  Pain circumstances: can occur during sexual intercourse or during urination ?
• –  Groin: abnormal vaginal discharge, discharge from penis, or vaginal bleeding ?
• –  Also common: eye discharge or spotting ?Are there treatments? ?
• –  Requires a medical diagnosis ?
• –  Lab tests or imaging always required ?
• –  antibiotics ?
• –  Short-term: resolves within days to weeks ?Genital Herpes: ?Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV)?How it spreads? ?
• –  By mother to baby by pregnancy, labour or nursing. ?
• –  By having unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex. What are the symptoms? ?
• –  Pain areas: in the penis or vagina ?
• –  Pain circumstances: can occur during urination ?
• –  Also common: genital sores, sensation of pins and needles, or skin rash ?Are there treatments? ?
• –  antivirals and self care ?
• –  Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong ?
• –  Usually self-diagnosable ?Gonorrhea: ?It’s caused by infection with the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae How it spreads? ?
• –  By mother to baby by pregnancy, labour or nursing. ?
• –  By having unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex. What are the symptoms? ?
• –  Pain areas: in the lower abdomen, pelvis, testicle, or vagina ?
• –  Pain circumstances: can occur during sexual intercourse or during urination ?
• –  Groin: abnormal vaginal discharge, discharge from penis, or increased vaginal discharge ?
• –  Also common: fever, frequent urge to urinate, irregular menstruation, pus, or sore throat ?Are there treatments? ?
• –  Short-term: resolves within days to weeks ?
• –  Requires a medical diagnosis ?

– Antibiotics
Syphilis:
A bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact that starts as a painless sore. How it spreads?

– – –
• –  Groin: painless ulcers, sores, vaginal discharge, or wart-like growths on genitals ?
• –  Skin: rashes, small bump, or ulcers ?
• –  Also common: fatigue, itching, mouth ulcer, rash on the palms and soles, rectal lining ?inflammation, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, or weight loss Are there treatments? ?
• –  Penicillin antibiotic and Antibiotics ?
• –  Medium-term: resolves within months ?
• –  Requires a medical diagnosis ?Hepatitis B: ?A serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus that’s easily preventable by a vaccine. How it spreads? ?
• –  By blood products (unclean needles or unscreened blood). ?
• –  By mother to baby by pregnancy, labour or nursing. ?
• –  By having unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex. ?What are the symptoms? ?
• –  Pain areas: in the abdomen ?
• –  Pain types: can be mild ?
• –  Whole body: fatigue, loss of appetite, or malaise ?
• –  Gastrointestinal: fluid in the abdomen or nausea ?
• –  Skin: web of swollen blood vessels in the skin or yellow skin and eyes ?
• –  Also common: dark urine or itching ?Are there treatments? ?
• –  Antiviral drug ?
• –  Avoid alcohol ?
• –  Requires a medical diagnosis ?Trichomoniasis: ?It is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. How it spreads? ?
– By having unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex What are the symptoms?
• –  Pain areas: in the abdomen ?
• –  Pain circumstances: can occur during sexual intercourse or during urination ?
• –  Groin: cervix inflammation, vaginal discharge, vaginal inflammation, vaginal irritation, ?vaginal itching, vaginal odour, or vulval inflammation Are there treatments? ?
By blood products (unclean needles or unscreened blood). By mother to baby by pregnancy, labour or nursing.
By having unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex. What are the symptoms?

• –  Antibiotics ?
• –  Prevent: Condom use ?
• –  Short-term: resolves within days to weeks ?
• –  Requires a medical diagnosis ?HIV/AIDS: ?HIV causes AIDS and interferes with the body’s ability to fight infections. HIV is virus and AIDS condition.?How it spreads? ?
• –  By blood products (unclean needles or unscreened blood). ?
• –  By mother to baby by pregnancy, labour or nursing. ?
• –  By having unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex. ?What are the symptoms? ?
• –  Pain areas: in the abdomen ?
• –  Pain circumstances: can occur while swallowing ?Cough: can be dry ?
• –  Whole body: fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, malaise, night sweats, or sweating ?
• –  Gastrointestinal: nausea, persistent diarrhoea, vomiting, or watery diarrhoea ?
• –  Mouth: ulcers or white tongue ?
• –  Groin: sores or swelling ?
• –  Throat: difficulty swallowing or soreness ?
• –  Also common: opportunistic infection, headache, oral thrush, pneumonia, red blotches, ?severe unintentional weight loss, skin rash, or swollen lymph nodes Are there any treatments? ?
• –  No cure exists for AIDS ?
• –  HIV antiviral meds – ?4. Contraception?* learn one fully in depth. Just know if the rest are hormonal or barrier or natural ?Contraceptive pills: ?A hormonal form of contraception (alters hormone levels in a female body). Protects against pregnancy but not STI’s.?Advantages? ?
• –  protects against pregnancy boi ?
• –  Highly effective if taken correctly (99%) ?
• –  Cheap depending on which is prescribed ?
• –  Improves acne and symptoms of menstruation ?Disadvantage? ?
• –  Only a female can take it ?
• –  Does not protect against STI’s ?Implanon: ?A hormonal form of contraception Advantages? ?
– Highly effective (99%)


– Cheap Disadvantages?
• –  Does not protect against STI’s ?
• –  Must be prescribed and surgically inserted into the arm ?*Abstinence: ?Natural form of contraception Advantages? ?
• –  safest form of sex (100% effective ) ?
• –  Protects against both pregnancy and STI’s Disadvantages? ?
– relies on agreements and boundaries set being respected by both parties in regards to sexual activity
Condoms:
Barrier method of contraception as it forms a barrier between skin to skin and exchange of body fluids?Advantages?
• –  Cheap ?
• –  Easily accessible ?
• –  Protects against pregnancy and STI’s ?Disadvantages? ?
• –  If not applied correctly, can slip off ?
• –  Latex can cause allergies ?
• –  Must be stored correctly for effective results ?Injections(Depo-Provera) : ?Hormonal form of contraception which is given as an injection and its effects will last for 3 months ?Advantages? ?
• –  Long term effects ?
• –  Only have to take every 3 months ?Disadvantages? ?
• –  Vaginal bleeding ?
• –  Liver disease ?
• –  Breast cancer ?
• –  Blood clots ?Emergency contraception: ?Hormonal contraception which prevents a fertilised egg from planting in the uterus Advantages? ?
• –  Easily accessible ?
• –  Can be used in emergency situations to prevent pregnancy Disadvantages? ?

• –  No protection against STI’s ?
• –  Can induce vomiting and cramps ?
• –  Vaginal bleeding ?
• –  Must be taken in a timely manner otherwise becomes ineffective ?5. Agencies ?
• ?  Family Planning Victoria ?
• ?  Better Health Channel ?
• ?  FPAA (Family Planning Alliance Victoria) ?
• ?  Shine SA ?
• ?  Healthdirect ?
• –  Provides information about reproductive and sexual health ?
• –  Delivers reproductive and sexual health services ?
• –  Support people to make right decisions about their reproductive and sexual health ?
• –  Delivery of training and education ?
Contraception – The deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a result of sexual intercourse.?Conception – The action of conceiving a child; fertilisation?Puberty – The period which adolescents reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction
Abstinence is a natural form of contraception. The advantages are protects against pregnancy and STI’s and safest form of sex (100% effective). The disadvantage is abstinence is relying on agreements and boundaries respected by both parties regarding sexual activity.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The infection affects both men and women. The infection spreads through vaginal, anal and oral sex and mother to child while pregnancy or labour. Many don’t develop symptoms. However patients may experience pain areas in the eyes, pelvis, testicle or vagina and pain circumstances can occur during sexual intercourse and urination. Antibiotics can stop the growth of or kills the bacteria.
Teenage pregnancy
Physical: Maternal amenia, preeclampsia and other disorders relating to blood?Mental: Mood swings, anxiety, difficulties in concentrating, eating and sleeping. Depression or postpartum depression?Social: Discrimination, shame, isolation, destitution, lack of financial support, loss of government revenue, relationship with the father of the baby?Emotional: Sadness, overwhelm, fear, excitement, frustration and resentment