Brayant et al. (2000) asserted that Climate change is agriculture that address the adaptation and adjustment to the risks connected to the changes in averages and, more recently, with recurring extreme events. Specific adaptation strategies to climate change effects include changing the timing of planting and using heat and drought resistant varieties, with new cultivars having been selected and applied for the same purposes, proper use of fertilizer, irrigation, practicing soil and water conservation techniques, and diversification to non-farm activities, are also adaptation strategies that practiced at farm level in response to climate change.
Deressa & Hassan, (2009). Suggested that the Ethiopia they coping strategies that have been recommended to lessen the negative impact of the climate change such us livestock ownership, investment in irrigation, planting early-maturing and drought-tolerant crop varieties. Moreover, In Ghana, Fosu-Mensah et al. (2010) identified that the crop diversification and changing planting date for crops, plant is one of the common adaptation strategy used by the farmers. And also in Zimbabwe, Gukurume, (2013) supported the crop and livelihood diversification were the main coping strategies used to lessen the crop failure and livelihood vulnerability.
Farming challenge like flood and drought are the common problems of the farmers in fieldwork that they encounter. Food production is threatened by climate changing through several ways increases the temperature and changing rainfall patterns that could affect crop yield. Lasco, (2012) said that in crop-growing areas due to sea-level rise, drought and extreme rainfall that leads farm damage. The impacts of climate change followed by the density can increased the risk effect upon the social and environmental welfare as well as the economic drivers in the ROM UNESCO1, (2009).
According to the study Wilhite et al., (2000); Wilhite, Hays & Knutson, (2005) Drought is a consequence of a natural reduction in the amount of rainfall received over an extended period of time, usually a season or more and is also related to timing and effectiveness of the rains such as delays in the beginning of the rainy season, amount of rains in relation to crop growth stages, rainfall intensity and the amount of rainfall events. the effect of drought requires the application of all components of the disaster management cycle rather than the crisis management portion of the cycle. Heavy rainfall events can cause floods, can wipe out the entire crops in the farms and also lead to soil water logging and reduce plant to growth.
Brian, (2009) cited that drought and seasonal rainfall uncertainties coupled with disease infestation, high pest and increasing rates of soil erosion and consequent soil fertility decline, short growing season due to late rainfall characterize by agricultural system in the district. This has had a negative impact on agricultural production subsequently reducing household income and subjecting communities in this district to high levels of poverty and very limited livelihood options.
Fisher et al, (2005) prove that there is a large concern regarding the impacts of climate change and its variability upon agricultural practices worldwide concerning the agricultural production in developing countries, the impacts of climate change does not always provide a unified picture. Pannell (2010) noted, the characteristics of climate change slow: there will be the time to adapt later, small changes in climate relative to annual variations in weather, farmers respond to weather, not climate, and the spatial heterogeneous.
Seenattun, (2010) stated that the primary victims when it comes to the impacts of climate change are the Mauritian agricultural producers since agriculture is highly dependent on climate stability, therefore affecting the yields of the producers. Without increased research and development of sustainable agricultural models in order to tackle the consequences of climate change, socio-economic development risks to stagnate and affect the income of private households in Mauritius Stern, (2006) observe the facing threats of climate change today and its impacts on the environment is certainly a challenge difficult to tackle.