This paper aims at examining the use of translation procedures proposed by Peter Newmark in the short story “??????????????” written by Khin Hnin Yu, translated by Ma Thanegi. Moreover, this study indicates the procedures that offer shifts in translating literary texts and investigates whether using several different procedure is effective or not in the proposed short story. The language structures collected from the translated version by Ma Thanegi were classified into categories and analysed based on the translation procedures proposed by Peter Newmark (1988). Qualitative method is used to conduct this research. According to the previous research by the researchers, the use of translation methods are analysed and discussed. However, the research on translaion procedures in translating short stories is relatively rare according to some observation. This research will be beneficial for those who are undergoing the process of translating literary text, especially those who are exploring the most frequently applied translation procedures when translating a short story.
Firstly, we would like to show our gratitude to Sayagyi Dr. Kyi Shwin, Rector of Yangon University of Foreign Languages for giving us this valuable opportunity.
Secondly, we would like to express our tremendous appreciation to Dr. Ni Ni Aung, Professor and Head of the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages, for her careful instructions.
Thirdly, we sincerely would like to thank Saya U Myo Lwin, the Lecturer, Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages for providing us with careful guidance and supervising us through the whole process of this study. Moreover, we are also grateful to Teacher Daw Yee Yee Lwin, the Lecturer, Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages for her wholehearted suggestions and lectures on Translation and Interpretation module for two consecutive years.
Lastly, this study could not be completed without sincere encouragement and support of all our beloved teachers. So, we would like to take this chance to thank all of our teachers from English Department at Yangon University of Foreign Languages.
Translation takes a major role in the development of a nation since it can enhance the knowledge of people with translated texts or books in various aspects of study. In the process of translation, a translator has to focus on different parts of speech which are expressed in two different languages. It is also important for a translator to have a great knowledge about common procedures used to translate several different text types. Translating short stories is tied both in words and their meanings. Moreover, source language and target language are not quite identical which makes translation to be a challenging task. To overcome this, a number of translation procedures are introduced to prevent from the losses in translating short stories.
1.1. Background to the Study
For being a better-qualified translation, the use of translation procedures plays a vital role. Different scholars defined translation procedures in various ways. Among them, the translation procedures of Peter Newmark (1988) are used as a model in this study and they are analysed to discover what kind of procedures are used in the translated version of the short story “??????????????”.
In the short story “??????????????”, the author described the life of a young woman who faced ups and downs in her whole life. It was written by Khin Hnin Yu, one of the most well-known female writers, who has been a winner of Myanmar National Literary Award in 1961 and 1995. It was published in “Mirror-Image Like Short Stories Collections”. Furthermore, the translator of this story, Ma Thanegi is best known for her translated works of Khin Hnin Yu and other Myanmar writers.
1.2. Scope of the Study
The scope of this study emphasizes on the recurring uses of translation procedures of Peter Newmark(1988). It also focuses on imprecise translation caused by such procedures and the differences between source and target language.
1.3. Organisation of the study
The paper is organised into six major chapters. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the study in which aims and objectives of the study, background to the study, and scope of the study and organisation of the study are included. Chapter 2 deals with literature review which mentions the role of translation along with several translation procedures proposed by Peter Newmark (1988). Chapter 3 focuses on research methodology of the study in which research methods, research procedures and research questions are mentioned as subdivisions. Chapter 4 provides detailed analysis of data. Chapter 5 emphasizes findings and discussion. Chapter 6, the final chapter of the study, pays attention to a brief conclusion of the paper.
1.4. Aims and objectives
This study aims at identifying and describing the translation procedures used by Ma Thanegi in her translated version of Khin Hnin Yu’s short story. It also attempts to figure out the translation procedures which are frequently used by the translator and the situations in which such kind of procedures are used. Its objective is to examine the translation of Ma Thanegi and determine whether it is effective to use several different procedures in translating source language texts to target language texts by investigating the uses of translation procedures.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. What is translation?
According to Peter Newmark (1988), the art of translation is transferring meaning of the text from one language to another, taking care mainly of the functional relevant meaning. It is a kind of social tool that can help people to communicate in their respective society. To make such communication successful, it is essential for them to have a mutual understanding of different aspects of both source language and target language. Sometimes, there are times at which a translator fails to convey the exact meaning of the target language. Understanding of variations in cultural aspects of different countries can therefore help to overcome such challenges. Hence, translation can be said as an activity to convey meaning from one language to another through the standard of equivalency in meaning.
2.2. Translation procedures by Peter Newmark (1988)
The choice of translation methods and procedures takes a major role in translation process. According to Peter Newmark (1988), translation procedures can be classified as follows:
1. Literal translation: SL words, phrases, clauses, sentences and its grammatical structures are converted to their nearest form in TL. However, lexical items are translated out of context.
2. Transference: SL words are transmitted in the text of TL. This usually occurs when vocabularies in SL don’t present in TL.
3. Naturalisation: SL words are adapted into the normal pronunciation and they are then changed into normal morphology (word- form) of TL.
4. Cultural equivalent: SL words are replaced with the words that are present in the culture of TL.
5. Functional equivalent: SL words are translated into cultural- free words of TL.
6. Descriptive equivalent: SL word is explained in descriptive terms of TL. It sometimes has to be weighed against function.
7. Synonymy: SL words are substituted by TL words which have a similar meaning.
8. Through-Translation: it is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organizations and components of compounds.
9. Shifts or Transpositions: SL grammar is changed into suitable grammar of TL.
10. Modulation: the message of the text in SL is mentioned in TL text with changes in terms of perspective so that it is suitable with the usual or normal situations of TL.
11. Recognized translation: it occurs when the translator normally uses the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term.
12. Translation Label: SL institutional terms are translated by the use of inverted comma in TL text. It can be done by means of literal translation.
13. Compensation: it occurs when loss of meaning in one part of a sentence is compensated in another part.
14. Componential analysis: SL word is compared with TL word which has a similar meaning. However, it is not obvious or one- to- one equivalent. Firstly, their common senses will be demonstrated and they are soon followed by differing their sense components.
15. Reduction and expansion: Both are used to change lexical and stylistic aspects of SL to TL. Reduction occurs when the number of elements from SL is reduced while expansion happens when the number of words exceeds in translating SL.
16. Paraphrase: the meaning of the word in SL is clarified by using several words in TL and it is more precise than descriptive equivalent.
17. Couplets: two different procedures are combined in translating SL into TL.
18. Notes: additional information added at the end of the translation.
The story entitled “??????????????” is one of Khin Hnin Yu’s well-known short stories. The story portrays the inevitable suffering of the old age. In this story, the main character is Ma Shwe Sin, a maid of the Liu couple. Ma Shwe Sin thought that she was very lucky to work in such a big house. She envied the Lius for owning this house and she had a passion on this house as soon as she arrived. She emulated the life of the Lius and wanted to stay in this house forever. She even wanted to become mistress of such a house. Later, she flirted with Mr Liu and became pregnant. She never regretted for this case and she didn’t even worry for her future at first. However, she was asked to leave the house and go away to give birth. She was very hurt to leave the house. Soon, she gave birth to a boy. Then, Mr Liu came and took them back when he heard the news. Unfortunately, Shwe Sin had to leave the house again for the sake of her son. Since then, she felt no joy and her life became meaningless as she had to stay away from the ones she loved. She became older and older and she doesn’t look pretty as she was. After Mrs Liu passed away, Mr Liu and her son came to take her back to the house she longed to as a mistress. Her dream came true and she was very happy at first, but this time she couldn’t get the enchanting feeling she used to get when she was young. Everything was still unchanged, however, she couldn’t enjoy it as she got older and her senses are not as sharp as before.