4772025-89535000 BOTHO UNIVERSITY BSC IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING A RESEARCH PROPOSED BY

4772025-89535000
BOTHO UNIVERSITY
BSC IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
A RESEARCH PROPOSED BY:
FULL NAMES: Wendy PhofediSTUDENT NO: SGB1301656
TELEPHONE NO: 267 75109514
EMAIL: [email protected]
TILTLE: ONLINE HOTEL RESERVATION
Date of Submission: 24 November 2017
Supervisor:
Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u CHAPTER 1 PAGEREF _Toc499299196 h 3INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc499299197 h 3BACKGROUND PAGEREF _Toc499299198 h 3PROJECT OVERVIEW PAGEREF _Toc499299199 h 3RESEARCH MOTIVATION PAGEREF _Toc499299200 h 4PROBLEM STATEMENT PAGEREF _Toc499299201 h 4PROJECT PURPOSE PAGEREF _Toc499299202 h 4PROJECT OBJECTIVES PAGEREF _Toc499299203 h 5RESEARCH QUESTIONS PAGEREF _Toc499299204 h 5ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS PAGEREF _Toc499299205 h 6PROJECT SCOPE PAGEREF _Toc499299206 h 6PROJECT PLAN PAGEREF _Toc499299207 h 7CHAPTER 2 PAGEREF _Toc499299208 h 8LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc499299209 h 8CHAPTER 3 PAGEREF _Toc499299210 h 10METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc499299211 h 10INTERNET RESEARCH PAGEREF _Toc499299212 h 10ORAL INTERVIEW PAGEREF _Toc499299213 h 10QUESTIONNAIRE PAGEREF _Toc499299214 h 11RATIONALE AND OUTLINE OF SELECTED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHOD PAGEREF _Toc499299215 h 13SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODEL PAGEREF _Toc499299216 h 13BELOW IT’S A DESIGNED PHASE OF WATERFALL MODEL PAGEREF _Toc499299217 h 14SELECTION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLATFORM AND HARDWARE COMPONENTS PAGEREF _Toc499299218 h 15CHAPTER 4 PAGEREF _Toc499299219 h 17DESIGN PHASE PAGEREF _Toc499299220 h 17IMPLIMENTATION PHASE PAGEREF _Toc499299221 h 27EVALUATION PHASE PAGEREF _Toc499299222 h 40CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc499299223 h 41
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONThe aim of the project is to create a mobile application for Lemepe Lodge that will help in the service improvement of the Lodge. And some of the services that will be provided to the lodge will include an online booking that allows users to interact with the application by making reservation on their mobiles anywhere they are at any time. During their stay there will be certain activities as well to be provided to keep them healthy and entertained e.g. gym, that will include meals, games as well as checking in and out of the hotel. It will also be required to create a centralized database that will help customer information retrieval as well as managing hotel information.

The system won’t be able to able to perform some functions like support running hotel economies but rather it will make calculations that include booking payments for customers. The overall project contains of an analysis phase, scope design, the system requirements, and design phase as well as implementation part.
BACKGROUNDPROJECT OVERVIEWThe new hotel system will be providing online service that is supposed to be as flexible as possible to travel agents, clients, customers and administrators where they are able to search, make and cancel reservation on the application. As for administrators they will be working on managing hotel for example add, delete update users
RESEARCH MOTIVATIONNowadays the internet has made it easy for us and accessible everywhere so we can make our researches, communicate with others etc. Almost in many business they operate through internet which also come as my project I got my motivation through researches made on internet. The motivation of the Hotel Reservation System is to design a mobile application that practically help customers online as well as travel agent to reserve rooms for themself without having to move from one place or making phone calls.
PROBLEM STATEMENTLemepe Lodge are using a manual system to handle each and every procedure taking place within the hotel including bookings, so this itself it’s a cost to customers as they will have to travel long distance to go make reservation, as well as cost of money for making calls. This is a problem as the time spent to go to the place and then you realize there are no rooms available, it’s frustrating because you will have to move from one hotel to another. In this manual system feedback is given by customers having to write in a piece of paper about the services provided and whether it’s satisfactory or not.

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PROJECT PURPOSEThe aim of the project is to design a mobile application that will help and allow users to search and make reservation for a hotel room or even cancel his/her reservation with the use of internet at any time. The purpose of the project is to reduce work overload for customers as well as staff members.

PROJECT OBJECTIVESTo develop an online reservation for Lomepe Lodge that will help to solve problems of a manual system that include consuming money, time as well as effort for both members
To Provide a friendly user interface that will be easy for customers during booking process.

Provide a platform that will handle booking online.

To produce the product which will be highly considered by people since it is useful to them
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
It is an essential part of the research project, study or literature review, it focuses on determining the methodology and guidance of all reports as well as inquiry, analysis.

The question of the project focus on
The concern area? Which is about where the project will be mainly focused
What is it is that needs to be improved in the system?
The problem faced that should be eliminated
How will it benefit the organization?
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONSIn this research we want to ensure that to all people we met with as well as hotel managers and supervisors, their personal details will be kept confidential and to each and every individuals who volunteered to take part in research that include interview will also be kept private as well as not forced to take part if they do not want to do it. The safety of our customers and users will be very high as they will be taken care of and not be given a reason to complain about anything during their stay as well as interacting with the system.

CONFIDENTIALITY – It is done in a way of trying to help build and develop trust among customers and to avoid illegal activities like fraud, discrimination taking place. To avoid all that we will ensure authentication within our system so no one else have access to other`s information.
PROJECT SCOPEThe proposed application will be having a database where customers will be able to reserve their rooms online and it will produce a feedback at the end. The information stored in the database that include customer details will be easily accessible. The implemented interface would be user friendly and understandable.

PROJECT PLAN

CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEWBefore the implementation of a system begins, literature review about an online hotel reservation studies has been conducted. Literature review which is the information gathering process is part of an important research phase in this project. Information is gathered in several ways, which varies from resources including journals, articles, books, forums and internet.

The project that I am working on is based on designing an online mobile application platform for Lomepe Lodge. According to Tech.co (2015), “a mobile application or mobile app is a software application or computer generated program designed and developed to run on iPhone, Smartphones, tablets and many other mobile devices.” The youngsters of today are likely involved in the use of smart phones devices and aware of how the mobile app operates such as the most popular applications being the WhatsApp and Facebook. This is a way to get their interest on more important aspects such as having to learn about making online reservations and other stuff on their mobile phones.
Looking at the related applications such as other online hotel reservations you will find that the appearance of the interface on its own is dull. The interface should be the first thing appealing to your customers, in that way they would really love to explore what the application is about. Interaction design is the key to a user’s attention. According to The Next Web (2015), there are five pillars of interaction design that should be considered to come up with an appealing and interactive application interface. This include the:
Goal-driven design- allows one to create specific goals for your users and make the application workflow to suit their needs.
Usability- The application should have purpose to users and friendly to use.
Affordance – The functions of the application should be easy for example the blue words could mean it is another link that could be taking one to the other pages.
Learnability- should have patterns that would assist the user to learn how to operate it easily
Feedback- Allows the users know if the task was completed or not that is for example through a beep sound.
Stuart (1995) in a study entitled “International Reservations Systems – Their Strategic and Operational Implications for the UK Hotel Industry”, presented details of the method and results of an investigation of the role and influence of international reservations systems within the UK hotel industry. The research comprised three questionnaire surveys of the use of computer reservations systems and distribution services by UK hotels. These were analyzed and produced an indication of general use of systems and the contribution which these currently make to hotel groups and consortia. The work also included a study of developments in access methods and changes in buyer behavior as observed by representatives of computer reservation and distribution system, travel agency, hotel representation and intermediary companies.

Online hotel reservations are becoming a very popular method for booking hotel rooms. Travelers can book rooms from home by using online security to protect their privacy and financial information and by using several online travel agents to compare prices and facilities at different hotels. People can book directly on an individual hotel’s website. An increasing number of hotels are building their own websites to allow them to market their hotels directly to consumers. Non-franchise chain hotels require a “booking engine” application to be attached to their website to permit people to book rooms in real time. One advantage of booking with the hotel directly is the use of the hotel’s full cancellation policy as well as not needing a deposit in most situations. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_hotel_reservations)
Reference list
Business Travel World (July 2005). Online Hotel Reservation System Retrieved from ERIC database. (17689182)
Online Hotel Reservation Software. (n.d.). In dotcomtechno.com. Retrieved November, 2009 from -http://www.dotcomtechno.com/ohrm.html
CHAPTER 3METHODOLOGYThe project that I managed to come up with was not an easy idea, but through different ideas of gathering information I managed to carry it out successfully, buy making sure all the requirements set have been met through different information. I did quite few researches after coming up with an idea as a way of trying to understand it further as well as meeting different people for more information with regard to the problem statement stated. The different methods of gathering information that I worked with include the internet research that helped me opt for an idea of the project to work on, Oral interview as well as questionnaire.

INTERNET RESEARCHAs we no nowadays internet is a vital tool to relieve the pains we weigh during my research it was a very helpful in a way of gathering information in regard to having an idea in choosing this topic for my project. Through it I went through different websites that are similar to the topic I chose as a way of trying to compare them and then try draw a picture of how my mobile application will look like. Through internet I managed to learn of problems I will come across during the process of designing this application as well as how those problem can be tackled.
ORAL INTERVIEWDuring my research of topics I was going through different companies to try find out the problems they might be facing which maybe is slowing down the business due to use of paper work, so this brought me to a very special hotel known as Lemepe Lodge at Molepolole where I met up with the manager of the lodge. I managed to get him to answer some of my question that I had prepared through our conversation I managed to find out that there is too much paper work and that cause problems when sometimes the files get lost some works are left pending without being compiled. On my findings I suggested to him on creating a mobile application that will try reduce workload for employees as well as easy to be accessed by clients as majority of them owns smart phones, this can reduce their wasted time of travelling distance just for enquiry.

The following are some of the questions we asked during the interview;
1. What duties do you do within the company?
2. What kind of clients visit your premises in terms of age?
3. What problems do you face with the manual system?
4. How do you deal with such problems?
5. What are the interest of your clients through your observation?
QUESTIONNAIREThis is another method of data collection that I used to collect information with, here I had set of questions that I prepared to come give them to the clients who came here that day for services as well as employees to hear their opinion about this problem. Since we want to introduce a new system within the company we decided to make the questions through a computer to see their reactions of using automated machine instead of paper work. The answers provided by the visitors was really interesting as they were so keen to welcome and use the mobile application because they already know a lot about the use of it. And that will be a great achievement as now they will have to make their booking online anytime anywhere without having to worry about going there and bouncing because it is fully booked rather that will be shown right away. Their reaction to the proposed app gave me a go ahead to do the development within the company.

RATIONALE AND OUTLINE OF SELECTED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODSOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELThe selected model: I have selected Waterfall model for designing my project, because the requirements that I have provided are well defined, and I might expect a slight change during the design.

This model follows a sequence of phases which are analysis, design, coding, testing, and implementation and maintenance. Each phase depends on the output of the phase before it. The reason why I chose this process model is because it has the following advantages;
Easy to understand and implement since the specifications are very clear from the beginning.

Ensures success of the project at each phase because we will not go back once we are done with the phase.

Helps monitor progression of the project and flexible since it easily accommodate changes to be made
It reduces problems in the project because requirements are clear-put. They are well analyzes in a very clear manner during the meetings and interviews held at the beginning of the project.
Waterfall model confirms a completion of every stage in order (ascending) to move to the next stage. I choose to use waterfall model because it is easy to understand and implement, safeguards completion of the project at each stage, helps to monitor progression of the project and it reduces confusions in the project since the requirements in this model are unambiguous.

BELOW IT’S A DESIGNED PHASE OF WATERFALL MODEL762000347980CONCEPTION
INITIATION
ANALYSIS
DESIGN
CODING
INTERGRATION AND TESTING
MAINTANANCE
CONCEPTION
INITIATION
ANALYSIS
DESIGN
CODING
INTERGRATION AND TESTING
MAINTANANCE

SELECTION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLATFORM AND HARDWARE COMPONENTSThe developed project will be created with the use of certain software and hardware, that includes a laptop or computer with a ram size that is 2GB as a minimum as a way of speeding up so the development run with no problems occurring
Platforms used include Windows operating system that will be working with include Android Studio version 2.1.2 used in creation of interface design of the application, sdk, Java Development Kit (jdk) and Android Virtual Device (avd) to execute the emulator.
The languages used will be the xml and java.

REQUIREMENTS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS
PRODUCT REQUIREMENT
The system will allow users to register and logs in
The system will make it easier for users to check in and check out
Allow clients to view rooms and reserve the preferred
Allow them to make and cancel booking
Process payments after it has been made
It will always produce reports when required e.g. receipt
It will be managing the authentication process
Make sure that client are satisfied by verifying all their deliverables
To store user information to be retrieved anytime.

To make sure that payments done online are highly secured.
Users will be able to order their food online

PROCESSING REQUIREMENT
The customer will have to create an account so that they can be able to log into the system to make reservation.

After login in the next page will be displaying the services offered within the hotel that will include different types of rooms with price range as well as activities offered like swimming, games and meals.

The customer will choose what they prefer and then next will have to make payments by filling up the booking form to confirm their agreement then submit and fill up the feedback form.

The administrators will receive the information and then send back the receipt that will be containing the room no, time and dates of arrival which they will provide when checking in.

The database of the system will be storing personal details of the customers to be retrieved and accessed.

PROJECT EXPULSION
The system will not check the bank card information but will rather sent it to the bank responsible for hotel money.

The running economy of the system will not be supported by the system such as salaries of the hotel members but only customer payments.

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
The Client wants a system that will do the following:
Produce reports as in when required.

Make a reservation/booking on line
Easily reserves rooms for customers i.e. notify management if rooms are available.

Easy to check in and check out by customers.
Give customers access to give feedback
Have one server which consists of a database with customer details
Require user credentials at log in time by different users
NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
The system should give tips/guide to users to effectively handle the new system.

The new system should be compatible with Windows Operating System
It should be easy to use, accessible by relevant departments within a short span of time
It should accept different languages
Produce reports as in when required in less than five seconds
Verify regular customers’ information in the existing database
The system should be user friendly to enable the client to interact with the interface
CHAPTER 4DESIGN PHASECLIENT TABLE Data Type Constraint
Username Varchar(15) Null
ID Int() Primary Key
Address Varchar(25) Email Int(10) Password Varchar(20) Age Int() Gender M/F Varchar(20) RESEVATION TABLE Data Type Constraints
Reservation-No Varchar(10) Primary Key
Reservation-start Varchar(15) Reservation-End Varchar(20) Reservation-Date Varchar(20) Room-No Int() Foreign Key
ROOM TABLE Data Type Constraint
Room-No Int() Primary Key
Room-Price Varchar(15) Room-Type Varchar(15) Booking form Data Type Constraint
Name Varchar(20) Surname Varchar(20) Phone Int() Address Varchar() Email Varchar() USE CASE DIAGRAM

DIAGRAMS DISCRIPTION
Use Case Name Design an Online Booking System
Related requirements Make Booking
Goal in Context client/ customer reserve a room within the hotel
Preconditions There are no conditions to be satisfied during this process
Successful end Condition the room would be reserved for a client during the time of request and that makes it unavailable.

Failed End Condition The expected initiator is an administrator using an application to perform the requirement task and the client is not yet known by the system
Primary Actors Administrator
Secondary Actors Clients
Main Flow Step Action
The client check for availability of rooms before booking
Then client view and select the preferred room and price
The client makes a reservation request
The system then request for contact details and identification
The client provide details including for payments.
Payments details are verified.
And the booking is done successfully
The system will then produce a receipt afterwards containing booking number and room.
EXTENTIONS
1a if rooms are not available then the hotel system terminates the request.

4a Client already on records then the systems continues to booking.
Use Case Name Design an Online Booking System
Related requirements Check in-out
Goal in Context A client occupies the room they have booked within the hotel
Preconditions The room will be booked for the correct reservation number and now a client can make payments.

Successful end Condition the room will be allocated to the client for the period identified in the reservation, and the bill is open for the time of stay.
Assumption The client is already known to the system and now confident that they can pay since their credit card is valid.

Primary Actors Administrator
Secondary Actors Clients
Main Flow Step Action
The client provide reference number or names, dates and address to the receptionist.

Then receptionist then enters the reference number, names, dates and address to find the reservation
The hotel system retrieves the information of the requested reservation
The receptionist will then confirms the room details and time of stay to the client.

The system eventually allocates a room to the client.
A client is now given a key to the room
Use Case Name Design an Online Booking System
Related requirements Cancel booking
Goal in Context A client cancel their booking
Preconditions There is a reservation room for a room in a hotel for a certain client with correct reference number.

Successful end Condition The booking will be cancelled and the room will now be free and the charge to the credit card will not be made if the cancellation is done within 24 hours beginning of the booking.

Assumption The initiator to cancel booking is the client
Primary Actors Administrator
Secondary Actors Clients
Main Flow Step Action
The client request to cancel booking made
Then client then enters the reference number, names, dates and address to cancel booking.
The hotel system receives a cancelation request
The system will now make the allocated room free
If the cancelation is done within 24hours of beginning of booking the hotel will not charge the owner of credit card details entered
After the cancellation is done the client be notified.
ACTIVITY DIAGRAM

CLASS DIAGRAM

ER DIAGRAM

IMPLIMENTATION PHASEImplementation phase, shows different designs of the mobile application that I have designed with the help of Android Studio platform and its features. In this phase there will be pictures and code snippet that I used for my project to link up and function well. To start a new project I have to create new activity that will contain the information about what the page is about and make them as many as my project requires, the next stage is to create intents that are used to link activities so a user can navigate from one page to another.

The picture below shows homepage for Lomepe Lodge that will allow users to view through the application before and see what the hotel contains for them, if it is a suitable one for what they require to have during their stay. A client have to browse through the application by clicking in any of the buttons before they can proceed to the next step of their booking

The picture below shows a client more information they might want to know instead of having to visit the place personally and ask employees about the hotel. And the other picture shows the services that are offered for example if clients want a conference room when they came as a company, the restaurant as well to provide food for them and a swimming pool and gym for relaxation .The activities are shown when a user clicks on the links shown in the home page where it will direct you to another page being the About Us, Services or accommodation activities.

The above picture shows the next step of a user navigating from the home page to the accommodation activity that will display the available rooms and prices which will allow them to select and make their booking. When a user make a booking that is when they will now be asked to provide their credentials if they have not signed in before that’s when they will be asked to register first as shown in the picture then proceed to the next activity of verifying their agreement.
The below picture shows a screenshot of a dropdown option which depicts the next step of a user after successfully logged in. user will have to fill the following information about the dates of their stay within the Lodge, the reason for their stay if it is for leisure then produce the number of people you have brought with you. After that that is when you can now select the room suitable for you and your family. The next interface shows different types of rooms available within the hotel varying in prices and facilities provided within each room.

Here shows an activity that shows a user is ready for the agreement of staying in the Lodge, it is a crucial state since it is where confidentiality is mostly needed as to secure our user during this process. A user will be making payments and have to provide their card No as well as password in order to secure their reservation.

CODE SNIPPET

The above picture shows snapshots of codes for login, database and intents that shows how pages are linked to navigate from one activity to another.
TEST PHASETEST CASE RESULTS
USER LOGIN PANEL
The login interface allows a user or Admin to login if the already have an account of the application they want to use. Otherwise if they don’t then the login will fail so they have to register first.
REGISTRATION PANELThe picture shows the registration panel that allows every individual to register before they can log in if they have not done so before. That is when your login can be successful if the details you provided are the one used for registration.
RESULTS AFTER GEGISTRATION
BOOKING PANEL
The interface shows a booking form that allows users to make proceed to the next step after selecting the preferable room. They have to next book to reserve their stay here where they will be allowed to choose a method of payment either VISA or Pay Pal. Then the final step will be the system generating information and then producing the receipt afterwards.
PAYMENT PANEL
The payment form here shows that a user must verify with their credentials to pay. During this payment they must provide their identity and password to verify the cards belongs to them or that they have enough amount if none of this are fulfilled the system will terminate the process and allow them to try again, otherwise if successful then the payments goes through.
EVALUATION PHASEThings I managed to achieve
I was able to cover most of my objectives,
Registration of users and admin then logs in
The interface that allow users to view and book a room
Provide online booking over the internet
Provide different methods of payments
Generate the receipt after payments been made
Make sure the projects get delivered in time
Provided authentication on the network
Things I failed to achieve
I failed to implement the check-in and check-out code it was giving me errors.
CONCLUSIONREFERENCES
Stevens, B. (1999). Hotel human resources directors identify ethical issues.

FIU Hospitality Review, 17 (1 &2), 11-10.

Stevens, B. (2001). Hospitality ethics: Responses from HR directors and
students to seven ethical scenarios. Journal of Business Ethics, 30 (2),
233-242.

Withiam, G. (1996). Beating employee theft with a winning restaurant
culture. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 37, 2, 1213.

Henry J, 2009 Software Project Management. New Delhi, India, Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd and Pearson Education.

Passenheim O, 2009 Project Management E-book
Pringle, Stuart M. (1995) International Reservations Systems – Their Strategic and Operational Implications for the
UK Hotel Industry. PhD thesis, Napier University. (http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/2785/Business Travel World (July 2005). Online Hotel Reservation SystemRetrieved from ERIC database. (17689182)
5 Culita et. al (2006) “Reservation System of Midland Pacific Hotel”, Unpublished Thesis, Lyceum of the Philippines
University