47625-42862500THE NATIONAL TEACHERS COLLEGESchool of Advanced Studies Quiapo Manila Menchie A

47625-42862500THE NATIONAL TEACHERS COLLEGESchool of Advanced Studies
Quiapo Manila
Menchie A. BarrantesGED 105 Thesis SeminarProfessor: Dr. Edna R. GalizaDate/Time: Saturday – 7:00 – 10:00
” Oral Reading Behaviors and Reading Difficulties of Grade 3 Pupils of Mauban South District: Basis for Reading Intervention in Filipino”
CHAPTER 1
PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
INTRODUCTION
Reading is one of the most important skills in one’s life. It is a complex process and cannot be taught in isolation. Reading is not only about printed and written words but on how a person interpret and comprehend the meaning of the words they read.

Learning to read is important aspect of basic education since the other disciplines depend on the ability of a pupils to read and comprehend the written text. According to ( Stern and Gould, 1995), ” reading is the most basic way of reaching literacy. It is the basis of education and helps to unlease the unknown and convey the reader to gain new, skills and information. Reading according to Edward William Dolch was defined imaging, thinking, and feeling about ideas and thoughts made form the past experiences that are suggested by perception of printed words. Reading as affirmed by the author, needs different capabilities as the reader decode the words and comprehend the meanings. The refinement of the reading skills is essential since a basic level of reading ability is not enough to master the reading literacy skills.
Tomie de Paola, an author and illustrator of children’s books once said, “Reading is necessary because you can learn everything from anything if you can read. Children who cannot read will be having a hard time to cope-up with theirs peers in every discipline. Based on a study of Donald J. Hernandez and the Annie E. Cassey Foundation, those who cannot read at their third grade are more likely to leave school without a certificate than a reader child.
The Early Child a Reader Program ( ECARP) is a national program of Department of Education that aim to produce a Filipino child reader at their own level. It is a plan to prepare elementary pupils with skills in reading and writing to produce independent young readers and writers. Aquino Administration had a educational reform that states the every child must be a reader by Grade 1 with the introduction of mandatory Kindergarten. ECARP introduced by the Department of Education in 2001 which targeted Grade 3 as the level by which a child must be a literate reader. This ECARP has created two major programs, one of them is the Philippine Informal Reading Inventory ( PHIL-IRI). PHIL-IRI is an assessment tool that evaluates the reading level proficiency of elementary pupils. It intends to measure’s pupil reading comprehension level, pupil’s word recognition and reading speed. The Phil – IRI provides teachers necessary information regarding pupil’s ability in reading, whether orally or silently including their reading habits and attitude. The information that will be gathered in Phil-IRI may be used in planning classroom reading instruction and strategies that may be helpful for the pupils. The questions are divided into three categories namely; literal, interpretative, and critical. This Phil- IRI helps to eradicate the non-readers and resolve reading difficulties of pupils especially those who are non-readers through identifying the reading problems. It is also a response to foster genuine love for reading while improving comprehension to eradicate illiteracy in the new millennium.

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Phil-IRI was developed because of the ECARP since a teachers should be equip of appropriate information regarding pupils’ current reading levels and abilities. EGRA Or Early Grade Reading Assessment results of 2014 shows that 8 and 38% of Grade 1 and Grade 2 pupils cannot read a single word of a short passage. Phil- IRI used as a classroom-based assessment tools which aim to measures and describe the learners’ reading performance in both English and Filipino languages in oral reading, silent reading and listening comprehension. These three types of assessment aim to determine the learners’ independent, instructional and frustration level. Phil-IRI data shall also serve as one of the basis in planning, designing/redesigning reading instruction of the teachers and the school’s reading program/activities to improve overall school’s reading performance.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Finding of the study will provide information of the different oral reading behaviors and reading difficulties of Grade 3 pupils that will be the basis for the reading intervention program.

Findings may help the teacher to understand the oral reading behaviors and reading difficulties of Grade 3 pupils. They can design an effective classroom reading intervention materials/ program that suits to the needs of each pupils. Henceforth, the reading and knowledge of the pupils will be given emphasis through the reading intervention materials/program that the teachers will design.

To the pupils, result of this study will help them to develop their reading skills comprehension skills through the appropriate reading intervention that the teachers will design and implement. This study will also help them to be confident since pupils know that they can read and comprehend.

To the administration, the result will give them an idea on how they will monitor and evaluate the reading comprehension skills of pupils. As well as they can give right help for their teachers to provide effective reading intervention.

The parents likewise, will have knowledge on the level of reading skills and reading difficulties of their child. With that they can give more time to help their child to surpass their reading difficulties and improve reading skills.
RESEARCH PARADIGM
2912834139065Input
0Input
730250Assessment of Grade 3 pupils in Filipino using the Phil-IRI Group Screening Test
00Assessment of Grade 3 pupils in Filipino using the Phil-IRI Group Screening Test

2615063225735
417195356885Process
0Process
3009014333390Administration of Phil-IRI Graded passages ( Pre-Test)
00Administration of Phil-IRI Graded passages ( Pre-Test)

266318979419
137795124460Create Reading Intervention Materials to cater pupils reading difficulties.

00Create Reading Intervention Materials to cater pupils reading difficulties.

3009013220212Output
00Output

The input variable is the assessment of Grade 3 pupils in Filipino using the Phil-IRI Group Screening Test to know the level of comprehension of pupils in literal, inferential and critical level of comprehension. The process variables is the administration of Phil-IRI Graded passages (Pre-Test) to know the learner’s independent, instructional and frustration level so the teachers will be able to know the level of reading difficulties of the pupils, to know the level reading materials/passages pupils can read and understand as well as what level of reading materials the pupils not ready. The output is the reading materials that will be created/design to help the pupils who have reading difficulties in the level.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
This study aimed to determine the reading difficulties of the Grade 3 pupils in Filipino at Mauban South District Division of Quezon. Specifically this study sought to answer the following questions:
What is the level of reading comprehension of Grade 3 pupils in terms of:
Literal
Inferential
Critical
What is the reading difficulties of Grade 3 pupils in terms of:
Decoding and word recognition
Fluency
Comprehension
Speed and Rate
What are the oral reading behaviors of Grade 3 pupils in Filipino? The
What reading activities in Filipino could be proposed to address the difficulties of Grade 3 pupils?
HYPOTHESIS
There is no significant difference in the reading difficulties of Grade 3 pupils in Filipino in Mauban South District.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
This study covers the Grade 3 pupils of Mauban South District, Division of Quezon. The emphasis is to determine the oral reading behaviors and reading difficulties of Grade 3 pupils in Filipino with the use of Phil-IRI as an assessment tool. It involved Grade 3 pupils of Mauban South District from nineteen (19) schools.
It will be limited to the oral reading behaviors and reading difficulties in Filipino of Grade 3 pupils of Mauban South District. Since the researcher will gather data from the different schools of Mauban South District that use Phil-IRI as an assessment tool to know the oral reading behaviors and reading difficulties the data that will be expecting to gather are valid and reliable.

The main goal of the research is to determine and analyze the oral reading behaviors and reading difficulties of Grade 3 pupils which will become the basis for reading intervention that the teachers or school will design .

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Comprehension – refers to the ability to understand the meaning of printed or spoken word as contrasted with the ability to perceive and pronounce words without reference to the meanings.

Literal Comprehension – refers to the understanding of information and facts directly stated in the text. –
Interpretative Comprehension – reader’s ability to extract ideas and information not directly stated in the textbook material, using prior or background knowledge to assist in such understanding.

Critical Comprehension – reader’s ability to respond with personal judgments and ideas about the content of the textbook material, using his or her past knowledge and thoughts on the subjects.Reading Comprehension –the ability to process information that have read by reconstructing, interpreting, revaluating, reacting emotionally and creating new ideas from the author’s written content by means of prior knowledge gained from life.

Reading – refers to the cognitive process that involves the decoding symbols to arrive at meaning that involves recognizing words to lead in the development of the meaning between the text and the reader.

Language – refers to the system of communication which consist set of sounds which are used by a people of a specific place for reading and writing.

Misues – refers to an error in reading especially one caused by failure to respond correctly to a phonetic or contextual cue in the text.

Reading Difficulties – refers to a person deficiency in fluent’s use and comprehension of printed or written text.