The research paper entails a data gathering procedure to answer an inquiry from the research problem. In this paper, the mixed method design is employed to present stronger and more credible data to the stakeholders and beneficiaries of the research. It is an integration of both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis (Cizek, 1999). Thus, this design provides more evidence, as research is conducted in both the qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Quantitative data is gathered and presented in the form of numbers, whereas qualitative data is presented through words, pictures, descriptions or meanings. According to Johnson and Turner (as cited in Plano Clark & Ivankova, 2015), the mixed method design is a systematic method that brings forth the unification of complementary strengths and non-overlapping weaknesses either of both research designs (Plano Clark & Ivankova, 2015). To gain a deeper understanding of the gathered data concerning the topic of study, the mixed method is utilized to combine statistical data with open-ended information acquired from the two sets of respondents.
The quantitative design aids in congregating the needed data to deduce the attitudes of ABM Senior High School students at the University of Santo Tomas with regards to digital advertising. The quantitative findings focus on the measurable results presented in a summarized manner. Self-administered online survey questionnaires are the basis of the numerical data. On the other hand, the qualitative findings are heavily concentrated on the sentiments and opinions of online sellers among the UST SHS body, whether it is efficient, for them to promote and sell their products in digital platforms or if it subjects them to a lower case of income. The phenomenology qualitative approach is used to gather the opinions of the respondents. In using the triangulation method, surveys are followed-up by in-depth interviews.
For the past years, social science literature generally used mixed method research in such a way that it expanded new knowledge for health and economic-related studies (Creswell and Plano Clark, as cited in Wisdom & Creswell, 2013; Bhattacherjee, 2012). It is acknowledged as an economic-related study because it is concerned with the development of marketing procedures and technologies.
Furthermore, establishing the research methodology shall be based upon the application of the mixed method design with the combination of quantitative and qualitative research design. It aids in the formation of conceptual and theoretical frameworks. The process of analyzing and integrating each data yields an information-rich data that is guaranteed to be feasible.
3.2 Population and Sampling Selection
Since the study will employ a mixed method research approach, it has two means of garnering the sample for both qualitative and quantitative method of research.
3.2.1 Qualitative Approach
For the qualitative approach, the study will use a non-probability sampling technique specifically, purposive sampling and its target population will be the experts and professionals in the field of digital advertising. On the other hand, the quantitative approach will utilize a probability sampling technique particularly, stratified sampling and its target population will consist of UST Senior High School students under the Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) Strand.
For the reason that the qualitative process will administer Key Informant Interviews, Purposive Sampling was chosen by the proponents of the study. Purposive Sampling is a sampling technique wherein a sample is selected based on the characteristics of a population and the objective of the study (Crossman, 2018). Purposive Sampling was selected due to the study requiring people who practice, research and teach in the field of digital advertising. These may include but are not limited to professors of marketing or advertising, online advertisers, and people working for digital advertising companies. These people were chosen because they have first-hand knowledge and are well-informed regarding the subject matter. From the target population, the researchers will handpick three people who are considered experts and professionals in the field of study and they will serve as the interviewees or the respondents of the study.
3.2.2 Quantitative Approach
In obtaining the sample for the quantitative part of the study, the proponents will make use of the probability sampling technique known as stratified sampling. This is a process used in market research that involves dividing the population of interest into smaller groups, called strata. Samples are then pulled from these stratum, and analysis is performed to make inferences about the greater population of interest (Foley, 2018). The sample will be taken from the population of students under the ABM Strand due to their proximity from the researchers as well as their knowledge and insight regarding the subject matter considering it is related to the field they intend to study in the future. This sampling technique was chosen in order to reduce sampling error and increase statistical precision. Since the ABM Strand is already subdivided into different sections, these sections will serve as each stratum. A random sample proportionate to the size of each strata will be taken.
In order to determine an accurate sample size, Slovin’s Formula will be used. Slovin’s Formula provides the sample size (n) using the known population size (N) and the acceptable error value (e). The resulting value of n equals the sample size to be used (Ellen, 2018).
n= N/(1+Ne^2 )
Upon gathering the data, the respondents are a crucial part in determining the findings of the study. The Slovin’s formula is utilized to calculate the number of sample size when the population is too large and to ensure a reasonable and precise result with regards to its margin of error.
The UST ABM SHS students are roughly estimated to have 1000 students. These students will serve as the population size (N) In generating the error value, it is important to determine what percentage of miscalculation can be allowed to conduct the study. Ninety-five percent is the common level of confidence which will be imparted to determine the margin of error. The margin of error (e) would be 0.05.
n= 1000/(1+(1000*?0.05)?^2 )=278
Following Slovin’s Formula, the sample size results to 278 respondents. The quantitative approach uses surveys wherein a large population tends to be measured but it takes too much time and can be expensive. The researchers shall survey the 278 respondents to have a smaller sample size and acquiring accurate results.
3.3 Study Site
The study will be conducted in the vicinity of the University of Santo Tomas (UST) located in España Blvd, Sampaloc, Manila, 1008 Metro Manila. Since the study’s respondents are Grade 11 and 12 ABM students, these students are housed in different buildings dispersed throughout the university. The eleventh grade ABM students are located within the Blessed Buenaventura Garcia Paredes, O.P. building while the twelfth-grade students are distributed in the different parts of the campus of the University of Santo Tomas namely: the BGPOP building, AMV College of Accountancy Building, Albertus Magnus Building, Fr. Roque Ruaño, O.P. Building, and St. Raymund Peñafort Building.
Figure 1. An illustration of the University of Santo Tomas Campus. Taken from: University of Santo Tomas. (2014, January 09). Campus Map. Photograph. Retrieved from http://www.ust.edu.ph/campus-life/campus-map. Copyright 2016 by University of Santo Tomas
A survey-type instrument was designed by the researchers as one of the data collection instruments for this study. Subjects chosen for the interview were the Accounting and Business Management students of the Senior High School department of the University of Santo Tomas. The questions were targeted to evoke responses from the subjects regarding the effects of digital advertising as a stimulator on their behavior towards the products being advertised while being aware that youth of this era pay less attention to traditional advertising such as television commercials (Meyers, 2017) and social media advertisements are more noticed. Questions relating to social media websites or platform, pop-up advertisements as well as promoted products are asked.
The researchers’ survey was formulated using a questionnaire that was used in this study for gathering information. The content of the questionnaire was based on the data collected and the findings of the interview that was conducted with the UST-SHS ABM students as well as on the information from the literature reviewed.
The questionnaire has 10 items. The questions are as follows:
The first part contains the personal information about the respondent
The first 5 items are questions regarding preferred social media platforms, the frequency of having access to such websites, and the mode of access and purchase used.
The remaining items are questions regarding the improvement, benefits, and effectiveness of digital advertising on their behavior. It has 5 items.
The questionnaire was constructed in a multiple-choice fashion consisting of choices closest to the respondent’s answer. Subjects were then mandated to respond regarding their preferred choice among the questions stated in the said survey.
Experts and professionals in this study were also given a separate interview for data collection. An in-depth interview was formulated for the respected subjects with different sets of questions to be answered regarding digital advertising and its effects on students. The subjects were given a three-week notice on the said interview for proper preparation and it was through face-to-face interaction between the researchers and the subjects being interviewed.
3.5 Data Gathering Procedure
For the study, the researchers will gather both primary and secondary data. For the primary data, the researchers will collect firsthand information for the purpose of finding out the effectiveness of digital advertising among UST SHS ABM students. The researchers will administer a survey for the quantitative part wherein the respondents of the study are UST SHS ABM students. Meanwhile, for the qualitative part of the study, the researchers will execute an interview and invite experts and professionals in the field.
On the other hand, the secondary data gathered contains various published documents like journals, books, and theses that the researchers collected from the process of the research.
3.5.1 Primary Data
The researchers acknowledge that a survey is an efficacious tool in gathering data. Surveys are inclusive of the types and number of variables that can be studied, entail minimal investment to begin and manage, and are relatively easy for making generalizations (Bell, 1996).
The questions that will be formulated for the questionnaire come from the researchers’ knowledge that they acquired from the information of past researches collected and cited. These questions were then validated and verified by a statistician.
The researchers will use the collective questionnaire because the study’s respondents are Accountancy, Business and Management students only.
To save some time and cut down on expenses, the survey will be administered online through Google Forms. After surveying the ABM students, the gathered data would be tabulated and then analyzed.
The researchers perceived conference as one effective material for the study because researchers would obtain important, relevant information from a professional that they interacted and have listened to face to face. The value of interviewing is not only because it forms a holistic snapshot, analyses words, reports detailed views of informants, but it also allows interviewees to speak and express their thoughts and feelings (Berg, 2007 as cited in Alshenqeeti, 2014).
As far as the primary data of the study is concerned, the materials for the interview will come from professionals and experts in the field. The researchers concurred in performing an in-depth interview and structured type, so the flow of the interview would be continuous and will follow the time allotted. The interviewees’ conformity with the interview would be viewed by sending them a letter three weeks advance and getting their approval to be a part of the study.
After writing to the experts and professionals, the researchers will then request an interview appointment before doing the actual interview. The gathered data would ultimately be brought together by having it transcribed and used for further analysis.
3.5.2 Secondary Data
Most of the secondary data sources that will be used in this study were derived from internet sources. Internet sources are easy to find, relevant and prevalent because in one click many data are laid out. Having the Internet for the usage of the public made it known as the information superhighway that there is virtually no subject that cannot be searched on the Internet in one form or another (Kibirige & Depalo, 2000). Some of the journals accustomed in this study came from the online database of the University of Santo Tomas (e.g., JSTOR). The other published documents like journals and thesis were derived from Google Scholar and established sites that focus on just research. The data gathered is utilized for the formulation of questions in the survey and interview.
3.6 Mode of Analysis
3.6.1 Qualitative Approach
For the qualitative data, the deductive approach will be employed by the researchers. This was chosen for it is a more efficient way of analyzing the data compared to the inductive approach. The reason for this is because the deductive approach is aimed at testing the theory rather than generating a new theory. The research questions aforementioned will serve as a guide for grouping and analyzing the data.
After the interview has been conducted, the data has to be transcribed. This is done by converting the data collected to textual form. After transcribing the data, it is going to be arranged in an organized manner for easier analyzation. The research objectives will serve as a guide by classifying the data according to each objective. The data then needs to be transformed into easily understandable concepts through coding. Coding helps in providing the meaning to the data gathered. After coding, the data then needs to be validated. Through validation, the researchers can assess the accuracy of the methods performed as well as the dependability of the results.
3.6.2 Quantitative Approach
In analyzing the quantitative data, the measures of central tendency will be employed. According to Laerd Statistics (2010), a measure of central tendency is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position within that set of data. As such, measures of central tendency are sometimes called measures of central location.
The measures of central tendency were chosen as the statistical tool because it can generalize and summarize the sample by a single typical value. Since the data that is going to be collected from the surveys is nominal, the preferred measure of central tendency will be the mode which provides the most frequent score in the data set or the most commonly occurring value in a distribution. This can determine the overall perception of UST SHS ABM students towards digital advertising since it outlines the most frequently occurring answer for each question in the survey.
3.7 Ethical Consideration
The following ethical guidelines were put into place for the research period:
Informed Consent is a voluntary agreement to participate in research. It is not merely a form that is signed but is a process, in which the subject has an understanding of the research and its risks. For the in-depth interviews, informed consent will be observed in the letter that is going to be received by the chosen respondents. The letter will provide all the necessary information regarding the study to be conducted and the details of their participation in the interview. This can help them make a well-informed decision of whether they would prefer to be part of the study or not. For the survey questionnaire, since everything from filling up personal information to answering each question will be done online, they will be initially required to read a short description of what the study is about and their role as respondents.
Voluntary participation refers to a human research subject’s exercise of free will in deciding whether to participate in a research activity (Paul, 2008). Throughout the entire data gathering process, the respondents in both the interviews and survey can decline participation or back out anytime they wish to do so.
Confidentiality and Anonymity
To protect its respondents, the study ensures that its researchers will not disclose identifiable information about participants and will try to protect the identity of research participants through various processes designed to anonymize them.
The International Center for Academic Integrity defines academic integrity as a commitment to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility (Fishman, 2014). In other words, it incorporates the value of honesty in executing the study, properly acknowledges the work of others and gives credit where the researchers used other people’s ideas as part of presenting their arguments. The proponents of the study assure that all sources are cited properly using the APA format. Quotes are properly identified and designated with quotation marks and works belonging to various sources are meticulously paraphrased.